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Transcript of gbfkbkrfpksfvlvbkld
1003688 Gender socialisation Gender in the classroom History and current policies Parental influence Teacher influence women Men Education ‘’Schooling for girls and boys should be...’equal but different’, and should stress the development of individual talents and interests’’
(Walker and Barton 1989) What is gender? What is equality?
"Gender" refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. This is different to sex.
"Sex" refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. Other factors The media Peer group Other factors Equality is ensuring individuals or groups of individuals are treated fairly and equally and no less favourably, specific to their needs, including areas of race, gender, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation and age. Gender equality Koch and Irby (2005, cited in Knowles and Lander, 2011) suggest that Gender equality is about eliminating the stereotypes and barriers that limit the choices and opportunities of both sexes. This keeps them from fulfilling their potential and contributing fully to society. Mensah and Kiernan (2010) in Equality and diversity “in recent research project working with the millennium cohort study data found that boys’ early educational attainment in communication, language and literacy was affected by their family environment. Their study did not take into account factors such as social class as signified by class categories or by FSM but used other factors to examine gender differences in educational attainment in the early years”
.. “They found that boys: ‘in families of mothers lacking qualifications, living in poor quality areas or who had begun to have children at a young age were increasingly disadvantaged compared to girls in similar circumstances” "Boys and girls are passive in their own socialisation and will simply absorb like sponges the same sex teachers"
(Skelton et al, 2009) Female teachers Male teachers Video games: An article printed in the mail (2010) suggested that women teachers are holding back boys by reprimanding them for typical male behaviour.
They reinforced stereotypes that boys are 'silly' in class refuse to sit nicely and are more likely to indulge in school boy crimes Delay (cited in Davis 2003)
expecting male teachers to come into schools as role models has a problem. What happens if they don't have the professional development, skills and training to engage boys with issues of gender and reinforce undesirable notions of dominant masculinity. Special educational needs (SEN) could also play a part in gender inequality. In the primary classroom. Statistics show that boys are more likely to have a SEN with 67.8% being boys and 32.2% being girls. Therefore treating the genders equally would be effective in this situation.
32.2% girls to 67.8% boys (Benjamin, 2003 p99; cited in Knowles (2011) Delemont (1983 p.49; Knowles, 2011) argued that every day life in school is permeated by sexist routines and practices Skelton (1989; Knowles 2011)
suggests that "The belief in child centered methods in education cause gender blindness" "for pupils the gender of the teacher was immaterial" (skelton, 2009) Aldingbourne primary school (2012) Girls Boys
Reading 89% 80%
Writing 87% 76%
Maths 92% 89%
Science 91% 88% Key stage 1 test results England 2006 – percentage of children achieving level 2 or above by gender Girls Boys
English 84% 74%
Mathematics 75% 76%
Science 87% 86% Key stage 2 test results England 2006 – percentage of children achieving level 4 or above by gender Ofsted (1999, p43)
"Sexist and racist attitudes are formed very early; sometimes before children come to school." "Overall comparisons between boys and girls are misleading however, tend to mask the significant effects of social class and ethnicity on the achievement levels or particular groups of boys and girls" "The failure of boys... is one of the most disturbing problems we face within the whole education system” (Woodhead, 1996; cited in NUT, 2001 p.3) National curriculum "Teachers should aim to give every pupil the opportunity to experience success in learning and to achieve as high a standard as possible ... to ensure they meet the full range of pupils need, teachers should be aware of the requirement of the equal opportunities legislation, the covers race, gender and disability"
(DfES 2009) Sex Discrimination Act (1975) Millennium development goals Target: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 promote gender equality and empower women For every woman who is tired of acting weak when she knows she is strong,
there is a man who is tired of appearing strong when he feels vulnerable.
For every woman who is tired of acting dumb,
there is a man who is burdened with the constant expectation of "knowing everything."
For every woman who is tired of being called "an emotional female,"
there is a man who is denied the right to weep and to be gentle.
For every woman who is called unfeminine when she competes,
there is a man for whom competition is the only way to prove his masculinity.
For every woman who is tired of being a sex object,
there is a man who must worry about his potency.
For every woman who feels "tied down" by her children,
there is a man who is denied the full pleasures of shared parenthood.
For every woman who is denied meaningful employment or equal pay,
there is a man who must bear full financial responsibility for another human being.
For every woman who was not taught the intricacies of an automobile,
there is a man who was not taught the satisfactions of cooking.
For every woman who takes a step toward her own liberation,
there is a man who finds the way to freedom has been made a little easier.
- Nancy R. Smith (1973) "dominant discourses are unhealthy for both boys and girls who want to achieve and are put under tremendous pressure to conform to anti-school culture." (Knowles 2011) (World Health Organization 2012) (Connolly 2002, p23) Efforts being made in school to promote equal opportunities are limited by other factors, namely influence of the child's family, attitudes held in the local community and by society by large.
(Kyriacou 2009, p68) Dietz (1998) There were no
female characters in 41% of video games.
1/3 of these contained women portrayed as
sex objects "Girls and boys must have the
same access to the school curriculum
and must be given exactly the same
subject options and the same amount
of subject teaching." Equality and Human Rights (2009) Many people view difference as a negative which is an ongoing problem in society. If we can step aside from the equality argument and embrace difference as positive, society could be a much more productive environment. Conclusion ACTIVITY John and Ellen's day (The University of Edinburgh, 2009) Aldingbourne primary school (2012) Aldingbourne primary school (2012) Aldingbourne primary school (2012)