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Updated Sport for Development & Empowerment
Transcript of Updated Sport for Development & Empowerment
Sport for Development
Links to 'Power'
Exercised in various forms...
SfD & Empowerment
Impacts on Practice
What does it mean?
Loosely defined! A word that means everything also means nothing distinctive;
Originally informed by critical development theory;
Became a mainstream concept in international development by early 1990s;
Both a process & an outcome. Can effect individual & structural transformation;
Elizabeth Rogers, PhD Candidate
Understand the term "empowerment" in international and community development;
Analyse how "empowerment" is applied in Sport for Development thinking, policy, and practice;
Examine a Sport for Development case study that seeks to empower communities in the Majority World (Sport Malawi);
Critically evaluate the value of "sport" in empowering women in poverty.
Word Association Game
Starting with the word "empowerment" pass on associated words...
The Power Cube
"Internalised Oppression" - Rowlands 1995
"Making sure people can help themselves." (Servaes 1999, p.194)
"Involves the poor and excluded actively articulating their social and political needs within the context of a variety of 'oppressive relationships' which range from the domestic and private to the international and public." (Kelsall and Mercer 2003, p.294)
Power operates across multiple levels and empowerment in one level does not guarantee empowerment in other levels.
Top-down approaches reflect the views & intentions of the most powerful
"A process of empowerment that seeks to engage poor and marginalised people cannot be effective if the methodology is 'top-down' and directive, or encourages dependency." (Rowlands 1995, p.105)
Bottom-up approaches are best for empowerment
NGOs better placed for this approach?
"Bottom-up" you say!?
A zero-sum game?
Lukes (2005) 3D view on power
Empowerment concepts central across the SfD field (e.g. peer mentorship, capacity building, self-efficacy, gender equality, health education, entrepreneurship);
Research on the SfD/empowerment relationship has focused on gender empowerment, HIV/AIDS education and a sports equipment programme;
Strong neo-liberal influence (McDonald 2015):
Economic principles - free markets, privatisation, less state-run social services
Dominant worldview - self-reliance, personal transformation, individualism & economic efficiency as solutions to social ills;
Top-down or bottom-up (structures, values, etc) ???
Formed in 2008 at University of Gloucestershire
1. University: Provide students with a challenging and dialogical learning experience, seeking to empower learners to realise and fulfil their ambitions.
2. Malawi: to build strong dialogical relationships and empower local practitioners to take ownership of their lives
3. Internationally: To provide an authentic and transparent contribution to the Sport for Development sector, alongside building relationships and sharing examples of best practice.
~ 80 UoG staff & student volunteers & ~1500 Malawi coaches, teachers, youth leaders.
Knowledge | Agency | Opportunity Structure | Capacity Building | Resources | Sustainability
Malawi Coaches, Teachers & Youth Workers
Community-based SfD projects
One group will take the position of Sport Malawi as a "bottom-up" SfD model;
The other group will take the position of Sport Malawi as a "top-down" SfD model;
Construct your argument(s) and be prepared to defend your reasoning and attack the opposition's position in a debate.
Origins and lineage of empowerment...
1960s - Nkrumah
"Political consciencism" = political, economic and social transformation needed for Africa
1970s - Paulo Freire
"conscientisation" - aware of power inequalities
"praxis" - reflection and collective action
1980s - Feminist activists and scholars
gender dimension to marginalisation
empowerment co-opted into neoliberalism
stripped of its radical roots
not collective struggle for systemic change
empowerment = individual responsibility and achievement