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Chapter 9

Melissa Patterson

on 30 November 2017

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Transcript of 10--Islam

What is Islam?
Islam is the religion of the Muslim people. The word "Islam" means "Surrender to God."
Muhammad is the founder of the Islamic religion.
The teachings of the Holy book of Islam, called the Koran or Qur'ran, serve as the basis for all Muslim law, both worldly AND religious.
Muslim or Arab Empire
During the same time that the Byzantine Empire was thriving a new empire was beginning. The Muslim or Arab Empire was located on the Arabian Peninsula and was sparsely populated.

The area consisted of desert plateau and only supported herders and flocks of sheep. There were two types of people who lived there:
1. Bedouins--nomadic Arabs who herded animals
2. Townspeople or Arab traders--lived along the coast of the Red Sea and traded goods.
Story of Islam
After Muhammed had visions from the archangel
he concluded that God had chosen him to be a prophet. He reported that the angel had told him that Allah was the one and only true God and gave him instructions about how people should live to please Allah and go to paradise after death.

His teachings offended some in Mecca because they made their living from the many gods that were worshipped in Arabia--especially Mecca. Muhammed was no longer safe in Mecca after the death of his uncle.

Muhammed searched for a new home and found the city of Yathrib, where people were open to his preaching. The town came to be known as
Medina (the Prophet's city)
after he moved there. Later Muslims marked his move from Mecca to Medina as the first year of the Islamic calendar. The journey was called the
hegira or hijra
which means

Later, Muhammed would raise an army and return to Mecca to destroy the idols in the Kaaba and defeat those who ran him out. This would be seen as a sign that Allah was very powerful.
Muhammad--Founder of Islamic religion; prophet of Allah (God)
Basics About Muhammad:
--Born in Mecca around 570
--Orphaned early in life and raised by his grandfather & uncle
--No formal education, probably never learned to read or write
--Camel driver and caravan trader; merchant
--Married a woman named Khadijah and had six children; only one lived to adulthood.
Spread of Islam
42 modern nations are completely Islamic. There are 1 billion Muslims in the world. Only 20% of the world’s Muslims are Arabs.
Pre-Islamic Arabia
Arabia was fragmented into dozens, of tribal, nomadic clans, called Bedouins. Each clan had its own deity (usually associated with the goddess of heaven or the moon, which nomadic people could worship anywhere.
The city of Mecca was the main religious and trading center for the Bedouin tribes of Arabia.
Before Islam, the Bedouins believed that their many gods were housed in the Kaaba, a black stone shrine in the heart of Mecca.
- Sunnis believe the true Caliph should be chosen by those close to Muhammad; but he did not have to be a relative. Most (85%) Muslims are Sunni.
- The Qur’an was composed throughout Muhammad’s life, sometimes written with the aid of his wife and daughter.
- Muhammad accepted the Jewish Torah, Psalms, and Gospel of Jesus
“Holy Scripture.”
Muhammad on camel; Jesus on donkey
The Dome of the Rock
Constructed in 692 C.E. on location of Muhammad’s
Location where
Abraham sacrifice
took place.
The Qu’ran requires all believers to follow certain practices, called the “five pillars of Islam”.
©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.
The Muslim religion prohibited the picturing of human and natural forms (a form of idolatry.) So Muslim art is a display of great geometric complexity and abstract ornamentation.
Causes of the Spread of Islam:
1. Religious zeal and belief in jihad (holy war)
2. Overpopulation of Arabian Peninsula
3. Desire for new lands and wealth
4. Weakness of the Byzantine & Persian empires

Effects of Islamic spread:
1. Arabic spoken in the empire
2. Islamic civilization became widespread
3. Ancient knowledge was preserved by Islamic scholars
4. Trade routes were controlled by Arabs
5. Split of Islam into the Shia and Sunni
Art and Architecture- The Islamic world produced artistic mosaics, marble and multi-colored tile flooring, and carpets.
Literature- Omar Khyyam, a member of the Abbasid Dynasty was the author of the Rubaiyat and the Book of 1001 Nights.
Mathematics- Islamic scholars developed the decimal system, and concept of the zero.
"There is no god worthy of worship except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet]."
The testimony.
The declaration of faith:
1. The Shahada
2. The Salat
The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a day:
* dawn
* noon
* late afternoon
* sunset
* before going to bed

--Wash before praying.
--Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.
The call to prayer by the
muezzin in the minaret.

Pray in the mosque on Friday.
3. The Zakat
(charitable donations).
Muslims believe that all things belong to God.
"Zakat" means both “purification” and “growth.”
--About 2.5% of your income.
Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan.
--Considered a method of self- purification.
--No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan.
4. The Sawm
5. The Hajj
The pilgrimage to Mecca.
--Must be done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime.
--2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year.
Those who complete the pilgrimage can add the title hajji to their name.
Mount Moriah Rock where Muhammad ascended into heaven.
The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem
The Muslim place of worship.
The Mosque
Muslims in the World Today
Countries with the Largest Muslim Population
Koran or Qur'an--Holy book of Islam
The caliph
Upon Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr served as caliph ("deputy")
Became head of state, chief judge, religious leader, military commander
First four called Orthodox caliphs because they were original followers
The expansion of Islam
633-637, seized Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia
640's, conquered Egypt and north Africa
651, toppled Sassanid dynasty
711-718, conquered the Hindu kingdom of Sind, Iberia, NW Africa
Success due to weakness of enemies, vigor of Islam
Dar al Islam
The Islamic world where the Sharia is in force, Islam dominates
Dar el Harb is the land of the unbelievers, or non-Muslims
The Shia and Sunnis
The Sunnis ("traditionalists") accepted legitimacy of early caliphs
Were Arab as opposed to Islamic
Did not feel caliphs had to be related to Muhammad
The Shia sect supported Ali (last caliph and son in law of Muhammad)
A refuge for non-Arab converts, poor; followers in Irag, Iran
Felt caliphs should be directly related to Muhammad
Two sects struggled over succession; produced a civil war, murder
The Umayyad dynasty (661-750 C.E.)
New caliph won civil war; murdered Ali; established dynasty
Established capital city at Damascus in Syria
Ruled for the interests of Arabian military aristocracy --which conflicted with the Muslim ideal of equality.

Results of rule:
1. Spread of Islam
2. Established Arabic as official language
3. Uniform coins throughout empire
4. Began building Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
5. Conquered all the territory to China and Indus River, northern Africa, most of Spain

Defeated by the Abbasids in 740s.
The Abbasid dynasty (750-1258 C.E.)
Showed no special favor to Arab military aristocracy
Empire still growing, but not initiated by the central government
Large Persian influence
Chose new capital, Baghdad, in modern Iraq

Abu al-Abbas --A descendant of Muhammad's uncle; allied with Shias and non-Arab Muslims
1. Seized control of Persia and Mesopotamia during 740's
2. Shattered Umayyad forces at a battle in 750; annihilated the Umayyad clan
Abbasids invited all people in the community to join in Islam and therefore changed the nature of Islam.

Caliph Harun al-Rashid was the most prominent Abbasid ruler and helpted bring Muslim culture to greatness--he supported scholarship and arts.

Abbasid Dynasty weakened by:
1. European Christians
2. Fatimid dynasty from Egypt that claimed descendence from Muhammad's daughter Fatima who disrupted trade
3. Seljuk Turks--non-arabs who took control of Baghdad in 1055
4. Mamluks & Mongols--Mamluks were once enslaved soldiers from Egypt & Syria who came in the 1200's; Mongols were Asians who conquered China and Central Asia and then the Abbasids in 1258.

Merchants, pilgrims, travelers exchanged foods across empire
The exchange and spread of food and industrial crops
Indian plants traveled to other lands of the empire
Staple crops: sugarcane, rice, new varieties of sorghum and wheat
Vegetables: spinach, artichokes, eggplants
Fruits: oranges, lemons, limes, bananas, coconuts, watermelons, mangoes
Industrial crops: cotton, indigo, henna
Effects of new crops
Increased varieties and quantities of food
Industrial crops became the basis for a thriving textile industry
Foodstuffs increased health, populations of cities
Agricultural experimentation
Numerous agricultural manuals
Agricultural methods and techniques improved
Improved irrigation
Camels and caravans
Overland desert trade traveled mostly by camel caravan
Caravanserais (motel, corrals) in Islamic cities
Trading goods usually luxury in nature
Maritime trade based on technological borrowing
Arab, Persian mariners borrowed
Compass from the Chinese
Lateen sail from southeast Asian, Indian mariners
Astrolabe from the Hellenistic mariners
Organization and dominance of trade
In North Africa across Sahara, down Nile, SW Asia, to India
Eastern Mediterranean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabia Gulf down coasts
Many cities grew rich from trade
Entrepreneurs often pooled their resources in group investments
Different kinds of joint endeavors
Operated on large scale and provided extensive services
Letters of credit, or sakk, functioned as bank checks
Exchange of Ideas included Islam, technology, culture
Quran, sharia were main sources to formulate moral guidelines
Constant struggle between what is Arabic and what is Islamic
Use of Arabic script as only language of Islam strengthened trend
Persians, Turks, Indians, and Africans struggled for acceptance
Promotion of Islamic values
Ulama, qadis, and missionaries were main agents
Education also promoted Islamic values
Islamic mystics, effective missionaries
Encouraged devotion by singing, dancing
Led ascetic, holy lives, won respect
Encouraged followers to revere Allah in own ways
Tolerated those who associated Allah with other beliefs
The hajj
The Kaa'ba became the symbol of Islamic cultural unity
Pilgrims helped to spread Islamic beliefs and values
Persian influence on Islam
After Arabs most prominent of Muslims, resisted Arabization
Cultural traditions often borrowed heavily by Islam
Became early followers of Shia
Government and regionalism
Many advisors (vizer is Persian word) to Caliphs were Persian
Cultured, diplomatic language of Abbassid court became Persian
Literary achievements
Omar Khayyam was greatest of Medieval Muslim poets
The Arabian Nights largely in a Persian style
Turkish influences
Central Asian nomads converted to Islam, developed literary culture
Invaded SW Asia and made caliphate dependent on Turkish nomads
Formed military might, leadership of late Abbassid state
Indian Influences
Purdah and harem borrowed from Hindus
"Hindi numerals," which Europeans called "Arabic numerals"
Greek Influences
Muslims philosophers especially liked Plato and Aristotle; Greek math
Effort of harmonizing two traditions met resistance from Sufis
Muhammad could not read or write so he recited the revelations that were given to him. These recitations were memorized by his followers and some wrote them down. Muslims believe they are direct revelations from God. They were collected together to make the Qur'an, which is the sacred text of Islam.

Muslims believe that only in the original Arabic language can someone know the full meaning and beauty of the words of the Qur'an. Muslims don't consider any translations of the Koran into other languages to be true representations.

There are five basic acts of worship that are central to Islam. Muhammad fulfilled these acts himself. They are the Five Pillars of Islam:
1. Faith--recite the words of the witness--"There is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his prophet."
2. Pray--four times a day facing Mecca.
3. Fast--go without food or drink from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan (this is the month that Muhammad first began reporting his visions.
4. Alms--give charity to the poor and needy.
5. Pilgrimage--travel to Mecca at least once in a lifetime (hajj--journey) and worship at the Great Mosque and perform rituals like climbing Mount Arafat and visiting the Kaaba, a cube-shaped building housed in the mosque at Mecca (it houses a black stone that Muslims believe was given to Abraham by God as a sign of His power).
This is the record of Muhammad's behavior and teaching. It means "tradition." Includes hundreds of individual lessons or reports on Muhammad's actions. Each report is known as a
This is the name of the legal system that developed over time. It reflects rules by which all Muslims should live. It is not a single book, but made up of opinions and writings over several centuries.
After the death of Muhammed in 632, it was not clear who was to lead the Muslims. Abu Bakr, who was one of Muhammad's closest companions and one of the first Islamic converts, was chosen. Not everyone agreed and tensions rose. Some leaders supported Ali, who was a cousin of Muhammad and his daughter Fatima's husband. As the leader of the Muslim community, Abu Bakr and those after him were called
or "successor to the prophet."
Under Abu Bakr and his successor, Umar, Muslim territory expanded quickly. Conquests included the Persian Empire, Byzantine Empire, Egypt, and parts of Africa. Conquests continued under later caliphs. They were called
or areas ruled by a caliph.
After Abu Bakr died, another caliph had to be chosen. Ali lost again.
, supported by the powerful Umayyad clan of Mecca was chosen. The Umayyads had been enemies of Muhammad and Uthman was soon killed.
Ali finally became caliph at this time. Civil war broke out between Ali's forces and the Umayyads and Ali was killed; Umayyads took control again under a new caliph,
. These followers were called
which meant
"followers of the prophet."
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