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Transcript of NUTRITION:
CALORIES AND ENERGY BALANCE
THE SIX NUTRIENT GROUPS:
VARIABLES THAT AFFECT NUTRIENT NEEDS
YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT!
A nutrient is a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body.
There are over 50 nutrients,
but they can be divided into
The six nutrients are absorbed during the digestive process. Most of the nutrients from food are absorbed in the small intestine. Water is absorbed in the large intestine leaving insoluble fiber and waste to be excreted.
Carbohydrates are often referred to as "carbs". Carbs are needed primarily to be used as a source
There are two types of carbs that we get from our food:
Fiber is found in some
carbohydrates. Fiber aids in
digestion and may prevent
some diseases related to the
Carbohydrates that provide energy
but do not provide any other nutrients
are called "empty". Empty carbohydrates
include such things as pop, candy, table
Protein is made up of
20 are important to the body.
9 are considered essential.
You must get the essential amino acids from what you eat.
Protein builds and
repairs the body. If
you were a house, the
wood, bricks, and
shingles would be protein.
in the types of proteins they eat.
They are many different reasons why
people choose to be a vegetarian.
There are four main types of vegetarians.
Vegan- Only eat protein sources from plants (incomplete proteins)
Lacto-vegetarian- add dairy
Ovo-vegetarian- add eggs
Lacto-Ovo-vegetarian- add dairy and eggs
They are sources such as
meat, egg, poultry and
seafood. They contain ALL of
the essential amino acids
Most plant sources
of protein have
Nuts, seeds, beans, and grains are all plant sources of protein. Alone, they do not support growth and normal body tissue development.
Incomplete proteins must be combined in order to provide all of the essential amino acids.
insulate the body
protect internal organs
a source of energy
Solid at room temperature. Found in meat,
dairy and tropical oils.
Fish, nuts and vegetable oils are
sources. These sources are usually
liquid at room temperature.
Created by adding hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fat. This turns liquids into solids. Sources include shortening and margarine.
We need fat in our diet.
It is suggested that we limit
both saturated and trans fats.
Too much saturated fat has been
linked to heart conditions.
We need to get numerous minerals in our diet and they are found in a wide variety of foods. Minerals are used for many body processes and they can also become part of the human body- cells, fluids muscles and bones. Minerals do not provide energy.
Minerals come from the earths surface and get into our food through plants taking them in from the soil or from animals eatig those plants.
Lacking in minerals can result in some medical conditions such as anemia (lack of iron) and osteoporosis (lack of calcium).
Vitamins are chemical substances found in many types of food and have many different functions. Overall, they keep the bodies systems working properly. Vitamins
do not provide energy.
Lacking in vitamins can be the cause of many medical conditions like rickets (lack of vitamin D) and weakened immunity (lack of vitamin C).
Vitamin D is called the "sunshine vitamin". Exposure to sunshine are necessary for the presence of vitamin D.
Water is essential for life. The human body can live a long time without many other nutrients but just a few days without water.
aids digestion and cell growth/ maintenance
lubricates joints and cells
regulates body temperature
Three of the six groups of nutrients provide energy, thus provide calories. Carbohydrate, protein and fat (lipids) all provide energy. We need energy for our everyday functions (for our heart to beat, our brains to think, our cells to replace themselves, etc) as well as for our daily energy needs for activity.
A calorie is a measurement. It is a measurement of the energy we get from our food
4 calories per gram
4 calories per gram
9 calories per gram
Bill Nye on
Why Nutrition Matters