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Transcript of Marcom Sunum
The Inmarsat satellite system is concerned with two kinds of communication:
-The transmission of emergency traffic.
-Routine communications. The world according to Inmarsat is divided into four regions:
-Atlantic Ocean Region East
-Indian Ocean Region
-Atlantic Ocean Region West
-Pacific Ocean Region The Inmarsat system of global satellite communication was proposed by the International Maritime Organisation.
-Developing satellite technology of the 1970s.
-Commercially operational in 1982. The area of coverage is effectively from about 70º N to about 70º S.
On the ground there are 34 Land Earth Stations, which provide the link between the satellites and the terrestrial telecommunications network.
Each LES is assigned a two-digit code number.
Finally, there is the Satellite Control Centre, also located in London, which is responsible for looking after the satellites themselves. Inmarsat Distress and Safety Services
After many years of international consultation, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and its member governments developed the new Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) with the co-ordination and co-operation of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), Inmarsat, and COSPAS-SARSAT. The GMDSS was incorporated into Chapter 4 of the SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) Convention. Ships subject to the SOLAS Convention began implementing the GMDSS in 1992 and full implementation took place on 1 February 1999. All ships use the same safety system, but some will carry equipment on a mandatory basis. Although the carriage of equipment for GMDSS operations is mandatory for SOLAS Convention ships (cargo ships of 300 gross registered tonnes and over and passenger ships making international voyages), other ships will fit equipment to the GMDSS standard on a voluntary basis or as required by their national administration. Most ships (whether SOLAS or not) will find it desirable and convenient to install Inmarsat type-approved equipment which will provide advantages for commercial communications and the added benefit of acceptance for GMDSS operation. Inmarsat Data Services
It is possible to send messages in many different ways via the Inmarsat network. One increasingly popular method is to use ‘data’, sending messages in an electronic format from one computer to another. It has been possible to send electronic messages via the Inmarsat network for many years but, with the increasing use of the Internet and computers, not only within the office environment but also now on board ships, it is becoming easier to exchange information in this way. Antenna Positioning Tables
To make communications possible, the directional antenna of an Inmarsat terminal (Inmarsat-A, B, M, mini-M or Fleet) must initially be pointed towards the required satellite. Subsequently, when the vessel moves, the antenna stabilization electronics ensures that the antenna remains pointed towards the satellite. Most of Inmarsat’s terminals are capable of pointing their antennae automatically towards a selected satellite, provided they have been properly initialised. Two Digit Codes
Use of these codes is not mandatory, some or all of these codes may be offered by some or all Land Earth Stations.
Someone of them which are distress and safety related codes:
32. Specialised Assistance (Medical advice): This code should be used to obtain medical advice. Some LESs have direct connection to a local hospital.
38. Specialised Assistance (Medical assistance): This code should be used if the condition of an ill or injured person on board the vessel requires urgent evacuation ashore, or the services of a doctor on board the vessel.
This code will ensure that the call is routed to the appropriate agency/authority ashore to deal with the situation. INMARSAT B
Inmarsat-B is the newer digital version of the analogue Inmarsat-A.
Inmarsat-B supports direct-dial telephone, fax and telex calls, and with the High Speed Data link such as from 9.6kbps to 64kbps, simultaneous two-way high speed data can be transferred, including pictures and video.
At the present time B does not support Enhanced Group Calling for the reception of Maritime Safety Information, and so it cannot be GMDSS approved for compulsory vessels. How To Make A Distress Call Using Telex
When you are in grave and imminent danger, you may use your Mobile Earth Station to send a distress alert.
A Distress Alert Generator may be fitted to an Inmarsat B MES and may be used to transmit a Distress Alert, alternatively, a distress message may be sent which is routed automatically through a Land Earth Station to a land-based RCC. The procedure for sending a distress message or alert is outlined below:
1. Press and hold down the Distress "Push- button" for at least 6 seconds.
2. Wait for automatic connection to the RCC. Type your distress message using the following format:
This is [ship's name/callsign .... ]
Calling via Inmarsat-B from position [latitude and longitude, or relative to a named point of land ....].
My Inmarsat-B number is [IMN for this channel of your MES ....] using the[Ocean Region....] satellite.
My course and speed are [course and speed ....]. You should then give:
The nature of your distress,
(for example: Fire/explosion-Sinking-Flooding-Disabled and adrift-Collision-Abandoning Ship-Grounding-Attack by Pirates-Listing)
Any other information
Don’t clear the call until instructed by the RCC to do so
Then keep your MES clear of traffic so that the RCC can call you back when necessary. How To Make a Distress Call Using Telephone
When you are in grave and imminent danger, you may use your MES to send a distress alert. The alert is routed automatically through LES to a land-based RCC.
The procedure for sending a distress alert is outlined below. Select telephone mode of operation.
Select Distress Priority.
Select the required LES access code.
Lift the telephone handset and listen for the dial tone, (or switch the handset to the TALK, as appropriate), then initiate the Call Request according to your equipment manufacturers instructions, your call will then be directed directly to the Rescue Co-ordination Centre associated with the LES though which you requested the call.
If you do not receive any response within approximately 15 seconds, repeat the distress call. INMARSAT C
Inmarsat C is a digital satellite communication system whereby anything that can be encoded into digital format, whether text, numeric data from instruments or other information in digital form, can be sent and received over the system.
Inmarsat C terminal is made via a form of communication will always transfer data. This works in the form of store and forward data transfer at any time an above deck equipment and a below deck equipment THE SYSTEM
Communications via the Inmarsat C system are data or message-based. Anything that can be coded into data bits can be transmitted via Inmarsat C. Messages are transferred to and from an Inmarsat C terminal at an information rate of 600 bits/sec. Frequencies are 1626.5-1645.5MHz (transmit), 1530.0-1545.0Mhz (receive). Inmarsat C is available in all four Inmarsat satellite coverage ocean regions , Atlantic Ocean East and West, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean through about 40 land earth stations (LESs). A network co-ordination station (NCS) in each region controls communications traffic Enhanced Group Call (EGC)
The EGC services were developed by Inmarsat to achieve access to a unique global automatic service, capable of addressing traffic to predetermined group of ships, or ships in both fixed and variable geographical areas.
It can offer automatic services in coastal waters where it may not be possible to establish the NAVTEX service.
The SafetyNET Service: This service allows an Information Provider, such as a meteorological or hydrographic office, to broadcast MSI addressed to all, or selected SES within an ocean region.
The FleetNET Service: This service is a commercial service and allows an Information Provider such as shipping companies or governments to broadcast information such as company news, or government information to selected SES belonging to a closed network. Basic Concepts of the EGC System SafetyNET
In 1988 contracting governments to the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention, working with the International Maritime Organization (IMO), incorporated these developments into the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS).
Among other things, the GMDSS defines the means by which shore-based authorities broadcast distress, urgency and safety information to ships. As explained , the GMDSS relies on two forms of communications technology to broadcast Maritime Safety Information (MSI):
NAVTEX, MF terrestrial radio to cover many coastal areas.
SafetyNET, using the Inmarsat C EGC service deals with the distribution of MSI by satellite, covering entire Inmarsat ocean regions including costal areas.
The SafetyNET service provider determines which receivers are to receive the message by including identifying information, such as the NAVAREA/METAREA/geographical area for which the MSI is intended. Navareas Inmarsat Fleet System
Introductions About f 77 System
When it comes to communication at sea, constant, reliable high speed internet connectivity is becoming a necessity.
The Inmarsat Fleet F77 is the next generation in mobile wireless communications for maritime services. It supports the Internet based applications and data services. The Following Services Are Offered:
64kbps 3.1kHz Audio
Mobile Packet Data Service (MPDS)
2.4kbps Group 3 fax
9.6kbps Group 3 fax FAX
Optionally, a fleet 77 terminal supports the Inmarsat 2.4kbps Mini M fax service. However, Fleet 77 also supports other fax services which provide more cost-effective means of sending and receiving faxes and which would probably be used in preference to the 2.4kbps service.
This represents one of the most cost-effective means of sending fax via inmarsat fleet system. ANTENNA
The F77 antenna was prepared for the new generation of Inmarsat-4 satellites and is compatible with third-generation (3G) cellular systems. DİSTRESS
It also offers significant safety improvements in satellite communications with the GMDSS.
With this system, the rescue authorities will always get a call through to a ship, even if the voice or data channel is being used continuously.
Not only will pre-emption work seamlessly, it will always work in a clearly hierarchical way. Fleet 77 Supports GMDSS Safety and Distress Services
Supports and includes advanced features such as emergency call prioritisation.
Fleet 77 offers call prioritisation to four levels, as well as hierarchical call pre-emption in both directions
With this system, the rescue authorities will always get a call through to a ship, even if the voice or data channel is being used continuously. Not only will pre-emption work seamlessly, it will always work in a clearly hierarchical way. Special Access Codes Thanks for your listening...
Vefa YÜKSEL When contact has been established, send your message in the following format:
MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY
THIS IS [ship's name/callsign]
CALLING VIA INMARSAT-A FROM POSITION [latitude and longitude, or relative to a named point of land].
MY INMARSAT MOBILE NUMBER IS [IMN for this channel of your MES] USING THE [Ocean Region] SATELLITE.
MY COURSE AND SPEED ARE [course and speed].
You should then give:
The NATURE OF YOUR DISTRESS
ANY OTHER INFORMATION The System
An Inmarsat B terminal is a small self-contained satellite earth station comprising, in the maritime environment, of an above deck equipment containing a parabolic antenna and electronics and a below deck equipment containing electronic units, power supplies and interface connections. Connections to telex, telephone, modem and facsimile equipment are contained in the below deck equipment Inmarsat Systems Comparison