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Copy of The Rhetorical Triangle

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by

Jacqueline Brady

on 14 September 2016

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Transcript of Copy of The Rhetorical Triangle

The Rhetorical Triangle
Pathos
Logos
Ethos
Several elements work together to shape an argument
Harmony between the elements leads to well-constructed arguments
Arguments can be unconvincing when the elements do not seem to match up
Pathos, ethos, and logos are the three elements of the rhetorical triangle
The effectiveness of an advertisement can be judged by carefully analyzing the ad’s rhetorical appeals
In other words, we can create an argument about the persuasiveness of an ad by looking at how pathos, ethos, and logos are used within the advertisement
This, in essence, is what your Project 1 assignment entails
Pathos
Is a Greek term that has been adopted by rhetoricians
Is the element of the rhetorical triangle that establishes an emotional connection between an audience and an argument
Is therefore commonly referred to as an emotional appeal
Emotional Appeals
Appear often in arguments, but sometimes even more frequently in advertisements
Use a reader or viewer’s emotions to draw him/her into the message
Manipulate either positive or negative emotions
Allstate Example
Although there are additional rhetorical appeals at play, pathos is prevalent in the Allstate “Mayhem is Coming” campaign
The campaign attempts to manipulate viewers’ emotions such as fear, apprehension, uncertainty, etc.
Allstate then offers its services as an alternative, manipulating emotions this time to create a sense of security, trust, preparedness, etc.
Humor is another emotional appeal used frequently in advertisements such as this
Old Spice Example
Like the Allstate advertisement, the Old Spice ad relies heavily on pathos
The company attempts to associate positive emotions with the product
The advertisement is very tongue-in-cheek, however, and primarily attempts an emotional connection with humor
Ethos
Is the element of the rhetorical triangle that establishes the connection between an author and an argument
Relates to an author’s character, credibility, trustworthiness, respectability, etc.
Is often referred to as an ethical appeal
Is something you can develop as a writer – citing sources properly, taking the time to proofread, and providing sufficient evidence are ways you can enhance your own ethos
Ethical Appeals
Ethical appeals are often used in advertisements, but appear in ads for some types of products more frequently than others
Ads for sports equipment, medical supplies, or technology often use ethos
The ethos, or character, of a company can be affected by our knowledge of the company itself or by its use of spokespeople
Apple Examples
In these advertisements, Apple relies on the ethos of its spokespeople
The Mac character and Gisele Bundchen are meant to personify Mac computers and Apple software and are supposed to represent the quality of the products
The PC character as well as his model are Apple’s attempt to damage the ethos of its competitors
The second ad even appeals to supposedly neutral authorities to lend credibility to the Mac
1984 Apple Example
While Apple’s spokespeople are important in establishing its ethos through visuals, Apple has a reputation itself that goes beyond the realm of its commercials
Apple has repeatedly set itself up as the anti-establishment, hip, trendy, creative, alternative computer company
It attempts to solidify this ethos with its commercials as well as with nearly everything it creates
Logos
Is the element of the rhetorical triangle that establishes a logical connection between reason and an argument
Is comprised of data, statistics, surveys, testimonials, facts, figures, etc.
Is commonly referred to as a logical appeal
Logical Appeals
Are often used in advertisements, but seldom appear as the primary rhetorical appeal
Are frequently used in conjunction with ethical appeals and/or emotional appeals
Are necessary in your academic writing, too
Got Milk? Example
The “Got Milk?” campaign is one that uses logos prominently in its ads
Statistics, testimonials, data, etc. are all logical appeals used in the “Got Milk?” campaign
The campaign also clearly couples logos with ethos by using celebrities and athletes as spokespeople
Conclusion
As you are now beginning to see, advertisements use rhetorical appeals in an attempt to persuade viewers
Although this presentation has split up the discussion of the three separate elements – pathos, ethos, and logos – they often overlap and interact within a single advertisement
Some ads, however, may not use all three rhetorical appeals effectively – it’s okay to choose an ad for Project 1 that primarily uses one or two types of appeal and seemingly ignores another
If you choose such an ad, I simply expect that you comment on the omission
Allstate. “Mayhem is Coming.” Advertisement. YouTube. YouTube, 25 June 2010. Web. 27 Dec. 2010.
Apple. “1984.” Advertisement. YouTube. YouTube, 19 June 2006. Web. 27 Dec. 2010.
Apple. “Mac Vs. PC – iMovie.” Advertisement. YouTube. YouTube, 9 Oct. 2006. Web. 27 Dec. 2010.
Apple. “Mac Vs. PC – Wall Street Journal.” Advertisement. YouTube. YouTube, 28 Aug. 2011. Web. 29 Jan. 2012.
California Milk Processor Board. “Got Milk? David Beckham.” Advertisement. Examiner, Examiner. Web. 27 Dec. 2010.
Old Spice. “Questions.” Advertisement. YouTube. YouTube, 29 June 2010. Web. 27 Dec. 2010.
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