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Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize?
Transcript of Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize?
You are walking along,
minding your own business, when suddenly you have to integrate a source into your research paper.
Writers frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and quotations. As part of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book, a writer might include paraphrases of various key points blended with quotations of striking or suggestive phrases as in the following example:
Your ultimate goal is
. You should work
towards seamlessly integrating your own ideas
with existing ideas to create something new. Paraphrase, quotation, and summary help you do
(adapted from OWL at Purdue)
You have three choices.
Quotation, Paraphrase, Summary
Your goal is to seamlessly integrate all three!
must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.
Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states, "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78).
involves putting a passage from source material into your own words.
A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source.
Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.
Gibaldi indicates, “Quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (109).
Students should be judicious when incorporating quotations into a research paper; this way, they will have greater impact (Gibaldi 109).
involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.
In the opening of the _Glass Castle_, Jeannette Walls observes her mother digging through a dumpster. She feels guilty and takes her mother out to lunch (3-5).
Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
Give examples of several points of view on a subject
Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own
Expand the breadth or depth of your writing
In his famous and influential work _The Interpretation of Dreams_, Sigmund Freud argues that dreams are the "royal road to the unconscious" (44), expressing in coded imagery the dreamer's unfulfilled wishes through a process known as the "dream-work" (5). According to Freud, actual but unacceptable desires are censored internally and subjected to coding through layers of condensation and displacement before emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself (186-200).
*note: I made up these page numbers.
Tips for Integrating Sources
the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas.
in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is.
important supporting points that come up in the essay.
Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be
It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.
It helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.
"Of the more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year, three-fourths are caused by head injuries. Half of those killed are school-age children. One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. In an accident, a bike helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the head." From "Bike Helmets: Unused Lifesavers," Consumer Reports (May 1990): 348.
If you just switch a few
words around and/or
don't properly cite your
sources when paraphrasing,
it is considered plagiarism,
whether intentional or not.
Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.
Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.
Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.
Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.
6 Steps for Effective Paraphrasing
"Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes."
Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
A legitimate paraphrase:
In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).
An acceptable summary:
Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47).
A plagiarized version:
Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes.
Paraphrase and create an in-text citation for the following:
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