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The time and culture of Jesus' Birth

Messianic expectation in the first century A.D.

Ryan Lowery

on 7 January 2016

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Transcript of The time and culture of Jesus' Birth

Jerusalem Ptolomaic Seleucid Babylon Greece Rome Daniel 2:44–45 (NASB95) —
44 “In the days of those kings the God of heaven
will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed,
and that kingdom will not be left for another people;
it will crush and put an end to all these kingdoms,
but it will itself endure forever. 45 “Inasmuch as you
saw that a stone was cut out of the mountain without
hands and that it crushed the iron, the bronze, the clay,
the silver and the gold, the great God has made known
to the king what will take place in the future; so the
dream is true and its interpretation is trustworthy.” Media-Persia New Rome? Assyrian Invasion Babylonian Invasion Return from Exile 4 Greek Rulers Macabean Revolt Pompey/Rome During the Greek period 323 B.C. 63 B.C. 167 B.C. Hasmonean 142 B.C Roman Empire 31 B.C. Herod the Great 37-4 B.C. Pharisees Essenes Sadducees Hasidim (pious) Hellenist (Greek Jews) 400 years of silence During the Roman period Deuteronomy 31:20 (NASB95) —
20 “For when I bring them into the land
flowing with milk and honey, which I swore
to their fathers, and they have eaten and are
satisfied and become prosperous, then they
will turn to other gods and serve them, and
spurn Me and break My covenant. Deuteronomy 30:15–18 (NASB95) —
15 “See, I have set before you today life and
prosperity, and death and adversity; 16 in that
I command you today to love the LORD your
God, to walk in His ways and to keep His
commandments and His statutes and His
judgments, that you may live and multiply,
and that the LORD your God may bless you
in the land where you are entering to possess it.
17 “But if your heart turns away and you will
not obey, but are drawn away and worship
other gods and serve them, 18 I declare to
you today that you shall surely perish. You
will not prolong your days in the land where
you are crossing the Jordan to enter and possess it. Divided Kingdom 928 B.C. 722 B.C. 598 B.C. Nehemiah Ezra Malachi Cir. 520-400 B.C. Malachi 1:7–8 (NASB95) —
7 “You are presenting defiled food upon
My altar. But you say, ‘How have we defiled
You?’ In that you say, ‘The table of the LORD
is to be despised.’ 8 “But when you present the
blind for sacrifice, is it not evil? And when you present the lame and sick, is it not evil?
Why not offer it to your governor? Would
he be pleased with you? Or would he receive
you kindly?” says the LORD of hosts. Malachi 1:10 (NASB95) —
10 “Oh that there were one among you who
would shut the gates, that you might not uselessly
kindle fire on My altar! I am not pleased with you,”
says the LORD of hosts, “nor will I accept an
offering from you. Malachi 4:4–6 (NASB95) —
4 “Remember the law of Moses My servant, even
the statutes and ordinances which I commanded him
in Horeb for all Israel. 5 “Behold, I am going to send
you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great
and terrible day of the LORD. 6 “He will restore the
hearts of the fathers to their children and the hearts
of the children to their fathers, so that I will not come
and smite the land with a curse.” Jeremiah 23:5–6 (NASB95) —
5 “Behold, the days are coming,” declares the LORD, “When I will raise up for David a righteous Branch; And He will reign as king and act wisely And do justice and righteousness in the land. 6 “In His days Judah will be saved, And Israel will dwell securely; And this is His name by which He will be called, ‘The LORD our righteousness.’ " No single form of messianic expectation was cherished by Jesus' contemporaries, but the hope of a military messiah predominated. The promises of a prince of the house of David who would break the oppressor's yoke from his people's neck seemed to many to be designed for such a time as theirs, whether the yoke was imposed of Herodian ruler or by Roman governor."
-F.F. Bruce "New Testament History" pp.133. During the 400 years of silence The Romans- Think it's superstition Messianic Expectation
in the time of Christ ` The Exodus -LXX -Greek culture and philosphy -Lingua franca (common language) -Relative order -Agriculture -Roads -The fierce expectation of Jewish
world ruler -The roads/industry/order or Rome -The language of the philosophers -Reoccupation of Israel 2x Pharisees- See it as something they will earn
through their obedience Sadducees- See it as a political tool Herodians- See it as a threat to their power Jesus alienates each of these groups
by not being what they expect, and leveling
a HEAVY critique against them At the death and Resurrection of Christ
word spreads and Jews and non-Jews (Gentiles)
start believing in Christ Luke (Paul's associate) compiles historical documents and eyewitness accounts =Luke/Acts Luke 1:1–4 (NASB95) —
1 Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile an account of the things accomplished among us, 2 just as they were handed down to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word, 3 it seemed fitting for me as well, having investigated everything carefully from the beginning, to write it out for you in consecutive order, most excellent Theophilus; 4 so that you may know the exact truth about the things you have been taught. What we need to understand 1) This is history 356-323 B.C. The Messiah -Elijah would proceed him (Mal. 4:4) -Born in Bethlehem (Micah 5:2) -70 7's after the decree to rebuild the temple (Dan.9) -Come during the time of Rome (Daniel 2) The impact of Jesus' teaching begins spreading around the Roman and Jewish world The world is in upheaval Addresses the books to "Theophilus" in an effort to separate the rumors from the facts and set the record straight. 2) The events leading up to Christ
are evidence of a supernatural power at
work! 3) A gospel is a biography of God 4) God works in unexpected ways 5) We can rely on what God has told us in the past,
even if we can't hear His voice clearly right now (e.g
the Pharisees mistake) -God always has been and still is VERY active
in human events -There are a lot of reasons to become
a Christian, but none more important than
because the Bible is true. - He is a God who keeps His promises -We need to get with His program! Next Week
Luke Chapter 1- God breaks the silence Holden Beach 2013=July 6-13
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