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Colonial Economy and Trade
Transcript of Colonial Economy and Trade
A series of laws passed by the English Parliament between 1660 and 1700 to control trade in the colonies
Sought to prevent colonial trade with other countries
Limited the colonies to only purchasing finished products from England
These acts angered the American colonists, and led to large-scale smuggling
Tobacco, Indigo, and Rice
Heavy Reliance on Slave Labor
England’s colonies should provide it with raw materials
England would then turn the raw materials into finished materials, which it would then sell to the people of the colonies and to people of other countries.
This meant that England strongly discouraged the making of finished products in its colonies.
Growth of Colonial Trade
Review: Triangular Trade
Diverse economy: limited use of cash crops, more limited manufacturing
Craftsmen and artisans: blacksmiths, weavers, printers, shipbuilders
Fishing and whaling for food, oil, and fuel
Importance of livestock
Slavery less important in the North
The Middle Passage
Crossing from Africa to the New World took between one and six months
Male captives were normally chained together in pairs to save space; right leg to the next man's left leg
15% mortality; two million Africans died on the Middle Passage
Women and the Colonial Economy
Laws and customs limiting women’s economic activity
Working at home and raising children
Producing goods for the family & selling products to others (on a limited scale)
Women as nurses and midwives
Some ran farms and businesses, such as grocery stores, bakeries, and drugstores
Only English or English colonial ships could carry cargo between imperial ports
Certain goods, including tobacco, rice, and furs could not be shipped to foreign nations except through England
The English Parliament would pay “bounties” to Americans who produced certain raw goods, while raising protectionist tariffs on the same goods produced in other nations
Americans could not compete with English manufacturers in large-scale manufacturing
“Salutary Neglect:” Lenient enforcement of Parliamentary laws.
The Middle Colonies
Staple crops such as wheat, barley, and oats
Combined aspects of north and south
More slavery than the north
Slaves as skilled laborers (blacksmiths and carpenters) as well as on farms and in shipyards
Virginia 1705; South Carolina 1712
Slaves were prohibited from possessing weapons
Slaves were prohibited from leaving their owner's plantations without permission
Slaves were prohibited from lifting a hand against a white person, even in self defense
A runaway slave refusing to surrender could be killed without penalty
New York Slave Revolt (1712)
Slaves worked among free blacks (unlike plantation slaves)
23 slaves set fire to a building near Broadway and killed 9 whites who tried to put it out
70 arrested. 6 suicides. 27 tried. 21 convicted. 20 burned. 1 broken on the wheel.
New York cracks down on blacks: no assemblies, no firearms, free blacks cannot own land
Stono Rebellion (1739)
20 slaves from SC fled for Spanish-controlled Florida
Before leaving, they robbed a store (killing the owners) of guns and gunpowder
The group of slaves grew in number as they headed south
When the slave owners caught up with the slaves, they engaged the 60 to 100 slaves in a battle
More than 20 white Carolinians, and nearly twice as many black Carolinians, were killed
As a result, South Carolina's lawmakers enacted a harsher slave code. This new code severely limited the privileges of slaves
They were no longer allowed to grow their own food, assemble in groups, earn their own money or learn to read.