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Lesson 2: A Brief History of Philippine Art

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Gabby Zayco

on 20 June 2016

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Transcript of Lesson 2: A Brief History of Philippine Art

Lesson 2: A Brief History of Philippine Art
Prior to colonization, art of the ancient Filipinos were woven into fabric of everyday life.

Everyday expressions were all integrated within rituals marked significant moments in a community's life, like:
Planting and Harvesting
Funeral Ceremonies
Weddings
Our ancestors, just like all others in the world during those times, were hunter-gatherers.
"KANYAW"
-Found in Cordillera Autonomous Region.
-Officiated by a shaman or mumbaki
-Involves animal sacrifices
"Kashawing"
-In Lake Lanao in Mindanao
-ritual to ensure abundance during rice planting and harvesting is observed and performed.
"Tagbanwa"
-In Palawan
-believe that every 13th moon, 3 goddesses descend from heaven to bless the planting of rice.
Long before the coming of the Spaniards, the pre-colonial people of the Philippines already possessed a varied and vibrant musical culture. The country's indigenous cultures through the existence of ethnic musical instruments such as:
PIPES
FLUTES
ZITHERS
DRUMS
KUDYAPI
KULINTANG
AGONG
"Pangalay"
-from Sulu archipelago
-mimetic of the movement of seabirds, the Mandayas' kinabua, the banog-banog of the Higaonon and of the B'Iaan communities, and the man-manok of the Bagobos of Mindanao imitate the movements of predatory birds.
"Talip dance"
-(Ifugaos) is used in courtship and is mimetic of the movements of wild fowls.
The
Inamog
of the Matigsalugs, and the
kadaliwas
dance of the T'bolis represent the comedic movements of mokeys.
"Tinikling"
-popular Tagalog folk dance often showcased for tourist, is evocative of the movements of the crane, balancing itself on stilt-like legs or flitting away from the clutches of bamboo traps.
Pre-colonial Filipinos have been making images before colonization. This is exemplified by the country's rich tradition in carving.
People of the Cordilleras carve the
bulul
, regarded as a granary god that plays an important role in rituals.
The ifugaos also produce the
hagabi
, wooden bench that marks the socioeconomic status of the owner.

Christianized communities in Laguna and Pampanga are known for carving
santos
or sculptures of secular or non-religious orientation.
In Southern Philippines, curvilinear decorations called the
okir
(termed
ukkil
in Tausug/Samal/Badjao) are employed in woodcarving.
I. Pre-conquest
In art historical terms, we refer to art before the coming of the first colonizers as
"pre-conquest"
. In stylistic terms, we refer to it as
"indigenous"
to emphasize the ides that our ancestors have been making art even before colonization. It is also described in cultural terms as
"pre colonial"
as a term to use for the general way of life before colonization. Although the terms are interchangeable, it is also useful to keep these distinctions in mind when studying the art of the past.
Manunggul Jar
, discovered at Manunggul Cave, Lipuun Point, Palawan is dated to the late Neolithic period. it is a secondary burial vessel, where buried and exhumed bones are placed.
Another cherished living tradition is
weaving
. According to Respicio, textile weaving has a long history that Philippine ethnolinguistic groups have a rich textile weaving tradition. Textile are not only functional, they also impart knowledge about people's belief system.
A
backstrap loom
or a
pedal loom
is used to weave designs that hold special meaning for a particular cultural group. Examples of woven textiles include the
pis siyabit
, a headpiece woven by the Tausug of Sulu and
malong
with exquisite tapestry panels called
langkit
woven the Maranao of Lanao del Sur.
Backstrap loom
Malong
Langkit
The colorful doubled-layered
tepo mat
of the Sama of Tawi-Tawi made of pandan leaves is a remarkable example of mundane or everyday object with high artistic value.
Weaving techniques are also applied in creating tools for agricultural purposes. In Ilocos region, sturdy bamboo strips are woven to create fish traps called
bubo
.
In the 16th century, the illustrated manuscript called the
Boxer Codex
featured representations of various ethnolinguistic groups.
As jewerly, painstaking attention to detail is manifested in metalwork, such as the lotoans or betel nut boxes various shapes, made of brass or bronze produced chiefly by the Maranao of Lanao del Sur. Textured designs of rhombuses, spirals, circles, and tendrils swarm over the exterior of functional containers.
The desin is achieved through a special technique of metal casting called the
lost wax
or
cire perdue
process which involves the use of moulds filled with liquified metal that eventually hardens.
Other vessels that employ the same techniques are the brass kendi and the gadur, which are used in ceremonies and are cherished as status symbols or as heirloom pieces. The
kendi
is a vessel used for pouring liquids.
II. Islamic Colonial
Even before the coming of Spanish colonizers, Islam was already well-entrenched in Southern Philippines, where it continues to be culturally dominant and strong. Islam was said to have gained significant grounding in Sulu as early as the 13th century. However, it was in the arrival of
Sayyid Abubakar of Arabia
in the 15th century that led to a significant turn of events. He married Princess Piramisuli, daughter of
Rajah Baguinda
. When his father-in-law died,Abubakar succeeded the throne and established the Sulanate of Sulu. Natives from Zamboanga and Yakans from Basilan were converted to Islam, with teachers coming from Jolo Suluand other practitioners from nearby regions like Brunei. As the Islamization process in Mindanao strengthened, Islam became the driving force that enabled the natives to resist centuries of Spanish colonization. Islam was embraced as a religion and as a way of life by the peoples of Mindanao. among them, the Tausug, Maranao, Maguindanao, Yakan, Samal, Badjao, to name a few; as well some areas in Palawan.
Filipino Muslims recognize that they belong to an
ummah
or a community of believers. Central to the Islamic faith is the doctrine of
Tawid
or unity of God. This belief emphasizes the impermanence of nature and the incomprehensible greatness of the divine Being. According to Prof. Abraham Sakili, we can then relate this with two aspects of reality.
1.)
the object perceived by the ordinary sense
2.)
the sense of nothingness, a space or a void empty of all things; to evoke that God is above and beyond all things.
How Philippine Muslims organize space in architecture is also telling of their adherence to the Tawhid and other Islamic beliefs.
Sakili observed that many of the Islamic forms are inclined to project, grow, or have an upward orientation, in tune with the regard for heaven and to veer from the "material earth". We can see this upward orientation of design elements in the
panolong
, and elaborately carved protrusion akin to a wing attached to the
torogan
or the royal house of the Maranao. Aside from the mythical
sarimanok
, the
burraq
, a horse with the head of a woman, is also an important figure believed to carry the Prophet in his ascension to heaven.
Torogan
Panolong
Sarimanok
Burraq
III. Spanish Colonial Period
While the South remained resistant to Spanish colonization, the colonizers gained inroads in the Central part of the islands whose inhabitants we now refer to as "Lowland Christians". Art that flourished during the Spanish colonial period conformed to the demands of the church and the colonial state. Religious orders were dispatched to convert the natives to Catholicism as part of the larger project of colonization. The art forms from that period are referred to stylistically and culturally as religious art, lowland Christian art, or folk art.
To carry out the project of colonization and Christianization, the natives were forcibly resettled in towns structured according to the plaza complex. This relocating became a means of organizing and gaining control of the native populace. The complex was designated as the town center and consisted of the municipio or local government office and the church. Designed according to the prescriptions of the Spanish crown, the Church established its importance in people's lives through its imposing scale and overall visual appeal. During this period, cruciform churches following the shape of the Latin cross were built. In keeping with the prevailing design of Hispanic churches, the baroque style was predominantly employed; they were characterized by grandeur, drama, and elaborate details that purposely appealed to the emotions. Examples of baroque churches that have survived to this day are:
San Agustin Church
Morong Church in Rizal
Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte
Sto. Tomas de Villanueva Church in Miag-ao Iloilo
Images of saints
and
interpretations of biblical narratives
were considered essential to worship. Under the strict watch and patronage of the church, images were produce through painting, sculpting, and engraving.The friars brought with them Western models for local artist to copy. Made of ivory or wood, the imagery of the santo would be based on classical and baroque models. During the 17th century, Chinese arisans, under Spanish supervision were engaged in making icons or saints or santos (in the vernacular) in wood and ivory; building churches and houses; as well as making furniture. They were spread roughout centers of creative production such as Cebu, Batangas, Manila, and Ilocos. Their involvement resulted in works that drew upon Chinese features and techniques. An example is a painting of
Nuestra Señora del Rosario
in Bohol, the image of which was said to be inspired from Kuanyin, the deity of mercy in East Asian Buddhism.
The Greek and Roman classical influence can be seen in the portion employed as well as the formality of expression while the trace of the Baroque is evident in the expressive and emotional characteristics of the santo. In colonial churches,
santos
are displayed in a decorative altar niche called
retablo
.
The
Via Crucis
is an important inclusion in colonial churches which are presented either as a series of 14 paintings or relief sculptures depicting Christ's crucifixion and resurrection.
Church altars are sometimes decorated with carved figurative protrusions on the surface called
relleves
or with the organic designs of hammered silver or the
plateria
. Tha plateria technque is also applied in the body of the
carroza
, where the santos are paraded during town processions.
With the coming of the Spaniards, who brought western musical instruments like:
PIPE ORGAN
PIANO
VIOLIN
and GUITAR
Philippine musical forms also took on a very european flavor ---- with new rhythms, melodies, and musical forms, that Filipinos proceeded to adopt them and make their own.
Catholic liturgical music was intorduce in 1742 when the then Archbishop of Manila,
Juan Rodriguez Ange
l, established a singing school at the Manila Cathedral that taught wetern church music.
Outside of Manila, a musical form based on the Catholic faith would emerge in the
pasyon
or
pabasa
as it is sometimes called-- or the biblical narration of Christ's passion chanted in an improvised melody. It is a tradition that has survived to this day.
Among the lowland Christian communities of Pampanga, Iloco, Bicol, and Iloilo, secular music forms such as the
awit
and the
corrido
soon flourished. These were musical forms that were chanted stories based on European literature and history and were popular even among the peasantry who learned the verses purely by rote. At this time, the
kundiman
and the
balitao
, balitao-sentimental love songs and lullubies also evolved. During the latter half of the 19th century when revolutionary sentiments began to develop, the kundiman which usually spoke of resignation and fatalism, became a vehicle for resistance.
Among Mangyans who inhabit the island province of Mindoro, bamboo poles are cut into smaller nodes and are etched with
Baybayin
script used to compose short poems that tell of courtship and other emotional concerns. In the town of Ticao, located in southern province of Leyte, a huge stone was discovered that contained Baybayin writing believed to be an invocation for safe journey by sea
" zarzuelas or sarsuwela"
was an operetta which features singing dancing interspersed with prose dialogue which allowed the story to be carried out in song. The first zarzuelas that were staged in the Philippines were entirely Spanich and featured a European cast. Local playwrights later wrote liberettos in the local language, hence the term sarsuwela.
Severino Reyes
and
Hermogenes Ilagan
, who wrote sarsuwelas in Tagalog were the most distinguished playwright os their day with Honorata 'Atang dela Rama (National Artist for theater and Music, awarded 1987) as their most celebrated leading actress.
The first
senakulo
or Passion Play was written in 1704 by
Gaspar Aquino de Belen
. Its narrative was called entirely from the biblical account of Christ's passion and death on the cross, adapted into verse form and translated into the local language. It is performed during Lent and in some cases, may last for three days. In some areas, the
senakulo
was tweaked to convey Christ's sufferering as a metaphor for the suffering of Filipinos under Spanish colonial rule.
The
komedya
is another local theater form that emergedring this period. The komedya depicts the conflict between the Muslims and Christians. There were two main types of the komedya.
1
.
komedya de santo or religoius komedya
. it centers on the life of Christ or of any saints.
2.

secular komedya
. The moro-moro is a type of secular komedya. The word 'moro' is derived from the Spanish word for Moor or the North African Arabs who ruled parts of Spain from the eighth to the 15th century. A typical moro-moro story would usually invlove a love story between a Christian hero and an Islamic heroin or vice versa.
In the visual arts. paintings served an instructive function through visual interpretation of biblical texts central to Catholic devotion. An example is
Heaven, Earth, and Hell
(1850) a mural by
Jose Dans
in Paete Church, Laguna.
Image making during the period generally conformed to the preferences of the patrons and not just the interest and preference of the artist's. Such relations are at work is the
Basi Revolt
a series of 14 paintings by
Esteban Villanueva
. It chronicles the defeat of Ilocanos who rebelled against the Spanish government's monopoly of basi or rice wine in 1821.
The reprographic art of printmaking was introduces in the Philppines as early as the 16th century. Applying the technique of xylography or woodcut printing,
Doctrina Christiana
(teachings of Christianity) was printed in 1593 in Spanish and Tagalog by Dominican priest. Doctrina is the first printed book in the Philippines compiling song lyrucs, commandments, sacraments, and other catechetical material.
In 1734, the Jesuit priest Fr. Pedro Murillo Velarde collaborated with homegrown talents, the artist
Francisco Suarez
and the engraver
Nicolas de la Cruz Bagat
to produce
Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas
, the first scientific map of the philippines.
The opening of Manila to international trade in 1834, and of the
Suez Canal
in 1869 gained economic benefits for the native elites. The enlivened trade and commercial ventures also presented to them the opportunity to study in Europe. From this class rose the illustrado or the "enlightened" ones. With the emergence of the native elites as new art patrons, secular themes in art were explored and developed.
In the domestic realm, families tended to their altars comprised of delicate santos placed in a
viriǹa
, a bell-shaped glass case; or
urna
, a humbler, domestic version of a retablo, often attributed to the craftsmanship of artist from the Visayan region.
The rise of this new elite would also manifest in town organization. Among those that occupied the plaza complex were the
bahay na bato
which housed rich and prominent families. .Simon Flores's painting
Portrait of the Quiazon Family
, 1800 documents the family's influence: the magnificent interior of the family's home, the mother's jewerly, the delicate fabric and embroidery of their clothing, and their dignified poses.
Other renowned miniature painters includes
Antonio Malantic
,
Isidro Arceo
,
Dionsio de Castro
, and
Justiniano Asuncion
who also rendered portriats of individuals. Attention to detail in painting can also be observed in
Letras y Figuras.
Combining names of individuals and vignettes of everyday life, this painting style became popular when Filipino natives acquired Spanish names in compliance with a decree implemented in 1884
Aside from miniaturist painters, academic painters gained ground as they received their art studies in local schools, or abroad as in the case of
Juan Luna
and
Felix Hidalgo
. In
1821
,
Damian Domingo
, the painter known for his watercolor albums of tipos del pais established the first art school in the country right at his stud in Binondo Manila. The
Academia de Dibujo
was eventually absorbed by where Domingo served as director. Closing down in 1834 after Domingo's death, this school was reopened in the 1850s.
The Academia-trained
Lorenzo Guerrero
painted
The Water Carrier
, which exemplifies the use of chiaroscuro in genre of the late 19th century.
The Pampanga-born
Simon Flores
also produces genre scenes.A distinct example is the painting,
Primeras Letras
, 1890, which features a woman teaching a child how to read.
Luna
won gold for
Spoliarium
; while
Hidalgo
garnered a silver medal for
Virgenes christianas expuestas al populacho
. Both works testify to Filipino artistic excellence which proved to be at par with the standards set by the European academy.
Spoliarium
Virgenes christianas expuestas al populacho
Luna's alignment with the ilustrados' propaganda movement is evident in the painting
España y Filipinas
, 1886 featuring two women ascending a flight of stairs.
The
Spoliarium
may be viewed at the National Art Gallery of the Philippines and
España y Filipinas
at the Lopez Museum.
Virgenes
, currently on a long-term loan to the National Art Gallery in Singapore, is a part of the Metropolitan Museum of Manila or MET Collection.
IV. American Colonial Period (1898-1940) to the Postwar Republic (1946-1969)
The independence that the Philippines gained after the revolution of 1896 was cut short with the establishment of the American colonial government in the Philippines Bound by the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain "surrendered" the Philippines to United States.

Plays such as Juan Abad's
Tanikalang Guinto
or "Golden Chain" , 1902 Juan Matapang Cruz's
Hindi ako Patay
or "I Am Not Dead", 1903 and Aurelio Tolentino's
Kahapon Ngayon, at Bukas
or"Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow", 1903 echoed not only the nationalist sentiments of their playwrights but also served as medium for political protest, openly attacking the Americans. Known as
drama simbolico
, these one-act plays came to represent a deep and profound yearning for freedom.
In 1915, Lino Catillejo and Jesus Araullo authored
A Modern Filipino,
the first Filipino play written in English.
Inspired by the
City Beautiful Movement
introduced in 1893 at the Chicago World Fair, the new urban design employed Neoclassic architecture for its government edifices and integrated parks and lawns to make the city attractive by making its buildings impressive and places more inviting for leisureamid urban blight.
De la Rosa was known for his naturalist paintings characterized by restraint and formality in brushwork, choice of somber colors, and subject matter, as seen in the works
Planting Rice
,1921 and
El Kundiman
, 1930.
PLANTING RICE
EL KUNDIMAN
A prolific artist,
Amrsolo
had produced numerous portraits of prominent individuals; genre scenes highlighting the beauty of the
dalagang Filipina
, idyllic landscapes; and historical paintings. He was also a graphic artist who rendered drawings or the textbooks series
The Philippine Readers
as well as illustrations for the newspaper
The Independent
Guillermo Tolentino
is credited for the iconic
Oblation
(1935, original/1958, bronze cast found at the UP Oblation plaza) of the University of the Philippines and the
Bonifacio Monument
, 1933 in Caloocan.
Unlike the latter's pastoral images, Edades's
The Builders
, 1928 showed distorted figures of toiling workers using dull colors; a shift in the treatment of form and subject matter.
"Botong" Fransisco
is known for his magisterial murals, particularly,
Filipino Struggles Through History
1964, one of the largest and most ambitious in scope, which he did for the Manila City Hall.
Galo Ocampo is recognized for indigenizing western icons, as seen in his
Brown Madonna
1938 which sets the mother and child in a native, tropical environment.
Edades, Francisco, and Ocampo
have been regarded as the
"triumvirate"
of modern art after having worked on several murals together. A collaborative work that survives to this day is
Nature's Bounty
, which portrays a group of women harvesting fruits in a field
Japanese Occupation (1941-1945)
Early moderns and conservative alike continued to produce art and even participated in
KALIBAPI
(Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod ng Bagong Pilipinas) sponsored art competitions.n 1943 and 1944, Purugganan and Francisco won KALIBAPI, respectively.
Slogans such as "Asia for Asians" made its way to the public through posters, ephemera, comics, and Japanese sponsored publications such as
Shin-Seiki,
and in newspapers and magazines such as
Liwayway
and
Tribune
. In music, the composer National Artist Felipe P. De Leon was said to have been "commanded at the point of the gun" to write
Awit sa Paglikha ng Bagong Pilipinas.
Declared as the anthem specifically for the period, it conveyed allegiance to the nation reared in East Asia, where Japan was actively asserting its political power.
If art was strictly policed during the Second World War, it brings us little suprise that Amorsolo's paintings, many of which showed little or no indication of war's atrocities, continued to be favored. Examples include
Harvest Scene
, 1942 and
Rice Planting
, 1942. These paintings that evoked a semblance of peace, idealized work in the countryside, and promoted valuews of docile industriousness. Such mood is echoed by Sylvia La Torre's hit song
Sa Kabukiran
, written i Tagalog in the 1940s by the acclaimed composer Levi Celerio (National Artist for Music and Literature, awarded 1997). La Torre's operatic singing along with an energetic tempo offered an escape from the troubles of the war. Comissioned portraits of high officials such as
His Excellency, Jorge B. Vargas, Chairman of the Philippine Executive Commission
, 1943 and
"Independence this Year"
,
said His Excellency, Premier Tojo
, 1943 were also produced at this time.
Portraits representing different ethnoliguistic groups were produced, and this is exemplified by
Crispin Lopez's

Study of an Aeta
, 1943. Although scenes from the war were also made, the imagery remained neutral, focusing rather on the aesthetic qualities of ruin and disaster.
Take Amorsolo's

Bombing of the Intendencia
, 1942 and
Ruins of the Manila Cathedral
, 1945 as examples, they draw attention to the elegant handling of value in the billows of smoke or the pile of ruins rather than the urgency of the disaster itself. Works which depicted the horrors of war such as
Diosdado Lorenzo's
Atrocities in Paco
and
Dominadoe Cateneda's
Doomed Family
were painted after 1945.
Manansala's
The Beggars
, 1952 consists of the image of two women with emaciated bodies, their forlorn faces set against a dark background capturing the deariness of poverty.
Many of
Manansala's
paintings are characterized by transparent cubism, a style marked by the soft fragmentation of figures using transparent planes instead of hard-edges ones. as exemplified in the painting
Tuba Drinkers
, 1954,
Legaspi's
Gadget II,
1949 depicts half naked men almost engulfed in the presence of machines.
Most of Legaspi's figures in this period are distorted by his elongating or making rotund forms in a well-ordered composition, as seen in the painting
Bar Girls
, 1947. HR Ocampo's
The Contrast
, 194, discussed Lesson 1 is a distinct figurative work which exposes dire human conditions amid the backdrop of modernity.
BAR GIRLS
THE CONTRAST
Ocampo's painting
Genesis
, 1968, which puts together warm-colored shapes, became the basis of the stunning tapestry hanging at the Man Theater or Bulwagang Nicanor Abelardo of the CCP.
The 1950s also saw the construction of modern architectural structures, particularly churches that modified or veered away from traditional cruciform designs. Within the UP Diliman campus, examples include the
Church of Holy Sacrifice,
1955 and the
Church of the Risen Lord
, which both employed concrete as primary material and experimented with rounded o parabolic forms. Another remarkable example is the
Chapel of St. Joseph the Worker
in Victorias, Negros, built by the Czech-American architect Antonin Raymond.
ANGRY CHRIST
Chapel of St. Joseph the Worker
Arturo Luz's works is the use of stark linear elements, as seen in
Street Musicians
, 1952 which pared down the figures into lines ans basic shapes.
V. 70s to Contemporary
Under the helm of Ferdinand Marcos and Imelda Marcos beginning in 1965, many cultural projects ensued amid the backdrop of poverty and volatile social conditions. Amidst claims of national chaos of emergency proportions, Martial Law was declared on September 21, 1972. Under Martial Law, Marcos envisioned a
New Society or Bagong Lipunan
, which worked toward the rebirth of a long lost civilization, on one hand, and aspiration to modernization and development, on the other.
The discourse of rebirth can also be discerned in the anthem or songs the regime sponsored and circulated through the media and public education channels. The optimism toward a new beginning was articulated for example, in
Levi Celerio and Felipe Padilla de Leon's
composition for the New Society titled
Bagong Pagsiglang.
At the center of this arts and culture program was the
Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP
), the premier bureaucratic entity through which art acquisition, exhibition making, workshops, grants, and awards were implemented.
For the group exhibition
Objects
, held at CCP in 1973, Chabet tore up a copy of a coffee-table k on Philippine contemporary art and placed it in a trash bin. The work, entitled Tearing into Pieces, was seen as a scandalous critique or the art world; in her book
The Struggle for Philippine Art
, artist, collector, critic and founder of the Art Association of the Philippines Purita Kalaw-Ledesma described the work as "anti-museum art".
Albano
(Chabet's successor) argued that although some experimental forms seemed wholly foreign, he invoke the practice of adoring ephemeral and familiar objects in fiestas, which shared processes and features with installation art. An early example of installation art is
Junyee's

Wood Things,
1981, made of kapok or cotton pods, installed on the walls and floor of the CCP's white cube spaces to make these look like crawlers encroaching on the museum space.
Social Realism(SR)
A significant strand that emerged during the intense political ferment of the 70s and the 80s was Social Realism or SR, for short. Using various mediums, techniques, and styles, SR, is a form of protest art that exposed the sociopolitical issues and struggles of the times.
Antipas Delotavo's Itak Sa Puso Ni Mang Juan
Edgar Fernandez, Kinupot
Kaisahan
was composed of Antipas
Delotavo, Neil Doloricon, Renato Habulan, Edgar Talusan Hernandez, Al Manrique, Jose Tence Ruiz, and Pablo Baen Santos.
Kaisahan's influence as a collective reached organizations like the group of UP Fine Arts Students who eventually became known in the 80s as the
Salingpusa.
Varied forms of expression can be observed from the period which spilled over from the previous decades.
In sculpture,
Eduardo Castrillo
's gigantic metal work
Pieta
, 1969
PIETA
EDUARDO CASTRILLO
In the 90s, when support from the state was practically non-existent, artist were empowered to initiate projects like regional festivals. Meanwhile, as galleries began to spring up inside mall spaces, equally intriguing were the budding of alternative and artist-run spaces that supported experiments and D-I-Y (Do It Yourself) projects of young artists.
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