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Drawing on primary material, assess the extent to which many

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luke turner

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Transcript of Drawing on primary material, assess the extent to which many

Drawing on primary material, assess the extent to which many contemporaries considered the Franco regime to be Fascist.
Luke Turner
Outline
1; trends in primary sources which suggest the Franco regime was 'semi-Fascist'

2; continuation of thoughts from primary to secondary sources

3; cross-reference Franco's regime with definitions of Fascism
Fascism as a term is often misplaced.

Primary and secondary sources agree that his regime showed Fascist tendencies at the beginning and that the nature of Francoism changed

Regime was authoritarian, wasn’t fully Fascist – not a singular party state – heavily tied to Catholic Church, wasn’t progressive and expansionary.

Overall, contemporaries view the regime as
'semi-Fascist'
Introduction
Presentation done in this way to see how the historiography has remained fairly rigid over time

Overall, there is a view that his regime was seen to be Fascist at the beginning

Eventually, it didn't fulfil enough categories of Fascism - thanks to relationship with conservative Catholic Church etc.
Does the regime fit the Fascist definition?
Primary Source Analysis
George Orwell;
'Fascism' an insult, used to describe bullies, Youth Hostels, women, dogs

The Marquis de Merry del Val;
'neither Franco nor any of his generals is a Fascist'

Juan J. Linz;
regime expressed Fascist elements by early association with Falangists
Secondary Source Analysis
Has the debate progressed?

Andrew Forrest
- Franco learned a lot from German and Italian Fascism, 'Fascist salute and conspicuous blue shirts'
Not a popular opinion

Paul Preston
, similar to Orwell; the term ‘Fascist’ can be used as a term of abuse as well as political definition

S.J. Woolf;

"during the civil war, in order to humour his Fascist backers, Franco uttered Fascist slogans and played up the Falange. But at best he was half-hearted..."

Preston;
the war aid from Hitler and Mussolini – enthusiastic belief that Fascism would dominate future world order.
After 1943 Franco dissociated with Axis powers.

Jensen;
after 1959, "Spanish Miracle", country open to investment. Better to call it 'semi-Fascist'
Drawing on primary material, assess the extent to which many contemporaries considered the Franco regime to be Fascist.
Drawing on primary material, assess the extent to which many contemporaries considered the Franco regime to be Fascist.
Drawing on primary material, assess the extent to which many contemporaries considered the Franco regime to be Fascist.
Drawing on primary material, assess the extent to which many contemporaries considered the Franco regime to be Fascist.
Primary Source Analysis
Linz;
defines authoritarianism as pluralistic, without elaborate ideology, without intensive political mobilisation, leader or small group has power - more appropriate to call Franco's regime authoritarian

Matthews and Almond;
Spanish system’s incorporation with religious bodies, status groups, Falange party = political pluralism, atypical of Fascism

Limitations
; Linz's source is good at political definitions, but long-winded doesn't always relate to Spanish case
Drawing on primary material, assess the extent to which many contemporaries considered the Franco regime to be Fascist.
Primary Source Analysis
Linz;
link between Franco's regime and conservative Catholic ideology is not typical of Fascism > with its progressive, revolutionary ideology

Linz;
by looking at
Franco's
manifesto, you can see lack of clear ideology, attempting to self-legitimise;

'We offer you Justice and equality before the law. Peace and love among the Spaniards. Liberty and fraternity free from license and tyranny. Work for everybody.’

Ramon Serrano Sunner;
Franco's brother-in-law, admitted
that the regime was dependent on other parties, therefore
wasn't Fascist/Totalitarian. ‘What it will finally be is still to be seen.’

Limitations;
biased account, self-legitimising
Drawing on primary material, assess the extent to which many contemporaries considered the Franco regime to be Fascist.
Secondary Source Analysis
Drawing on primary material, assess the extent to which many contemporaries considered the Franco regime to be Fascist.
Francoism doesn’t meet all the criterion of Fascism:

De Meneses;
a lack of revolutionary politics
Carr;
Francoism was conservative, Catholic, authoritarian – eventually no key-features of Fascism, no single party, no successful mass-mobilisation.
Preston;
identification of Franco and the traditional oligarchy as a primary reason why his regime should not be assumed to being fully Fascist.

Preston;
Spanish Catholic dominance undermined ideal Fascism

Preston and de Meneses
; Francoism differs from Fascism - revolutionary element is a major part of Fascist ideology, whereas Francoism was traditional and reactionary, based off the power of the Church.
One-party state with leadership cult?
Not really
- pluralistic system
Dominant fascist party with ideology for change?
Conservative and traditional. Falange not dominant.
Anti-socialist / liberal
Yes
- more obvious at the beginning of his regime when he sent troops to fight against Bolsheviks in Russia
Nationalistic, militaristic with imperial ambitions
Nationalistic yes, militaristic yes


No expansionary / imperial ambitions
Strict control over media and education
Yes,
but allowed church free reign. Lots of teachers killed though and universities monitored – important not to forget brutality in this debate.
Fascist economic policies like autarky
Yes
at beginning,

Later
on in regime; opened up to foreign investment.
Conclusions:
Bibliography / References
Primary Sources
Almond, Gabriel A., ‘Comparative Political Systems’, The Journal of Politics, Vol. 18, in H. Eulau, et. al., ed,. Political Behavior (Glencoe: Free Press, 1956)
Dag, O, and George Orwell, What is fascism? (2015), <http://orwell.ru/library/articles/As_I_Please/english/efasc> [accessed 4 November 2016]
De Merry del Val, The Marquis; The Conflict in Spain: Communistic Mis-statements Refuted (London: Catholic Truth Society, 1937)
Franco, Francisco, Point 27 of the Program of Falange Espanola, quoted in David Jato, La Rebelion de los Estudiantes (Madrid: CIDS, 1953)
Linz, Juan J., ‘An authoritarian regime: Spain’, in Allardt, Erik, Cleavages, ideologies and part systems: contributions to comparative political sociology, (Helsinki: Academic Bookstore, 1964)
Serrano Suner, Ramon, Entre Henyada y Gibraltar (noticia y relexion, frente a una leyenda sobre nuestra politica en dos guerras), (Madrid: Ediciones y Publicaciones Espanoles S.A., 1947)

Secondary Sources
Carr, Raymond, Modern Spain 1875-1980 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980)
De Meneses, Filipe Riberio, Franco and the Spanish Civil War (London: Taylor & Francis, 2001)
Forrest, Andrew, The Spanish Civil War; Andrew Forrest, The Spanish civil war (New York: Taylor & Francis, 2000)
Jensen, Geoffrey, Franco: Soldier, commander, dictator (Washington DC: Potomac Books, 2005)
Pearce, Robert D., Fascism and Nazism (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1997)
Preston, Paul, ‘Spain’, in Woolf, S. J., Fascism in Europe, (London: Methuen, 1981)
Solsten, Eric and Sandra W. Meditz, ed., Spain: A Country Study (Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1988)
Woolf, S.J., Fascism in Europe (London: Taylor & Francis, 1981)
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