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Learning and Communicating Online - Assessment 2A

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Matthew Paas

on 24 January 2016

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Transcript of Learning and Communicating Online - Assessment 2A

Relaxation and deep breathing
Cognitive restructuring (changing the way you think)
Problem solving (think logically)
Communication (slow down, listen carefully and think before reacting).

(Giles, 2014)
Consequences and Effects
Non Verbal Behaviour
Communication Styles
Learning and Communicating Online
Non-verbal Communication
Behavioural Characteristics
Assertive Communication
Consequences and Effects
By John Jarvis, Bridget Thompson, Matthew Paas and Lauren Rulla
How can you relate communication channels to this clip?
Questions #3
The Social Network
How can your nonverbal communication & emotional intelligence skills impact you in a business related situation like interviews and meetings?
Question #1
What will be the contingency plan if you lose communication with someone or what alternative will you chose in that situation?
Questions #2
Effective Improvement Strategies
How does communication channels tie into organization behavior ?
If you were a boss or employee how would you want your company to run with communication channels and how would you evaluate It ?
How can your nonverbal communication & emotional intelligence skills impact you in a business related situation like interviews and meetings?
What do you think about employees that are using social network while they work? What are the positive and negative aspects ?
General Questions
Effective Improvement Strategies
Behavioural Characteristics
Passive-Aggressive Communication
Effective Improvement Strategies
Consequences and Effects
Behavioural Characteristics
Non Verbal Behaviour
Aggressive Communication
The Oxford Dictionary (2015) defines Passive-Aggressive behaviour as:

Of or denoting a type of behaviour or personality characterized by
indirect resistance to the demands of others and an avoidance of
direct confrontation.
A passive-aggressive person will often procrastinate on a given task. Rather than express that they cannot comply with a request they will deliberately delay completing the task until the very last moment or later (Coaching Positive Performance, 2015).
At first, passive-aggressive people may seem friendly. It is only after some time that you realise that the compliment was actually disguising an insult.
(Coaching Positive Performance, 2015).
(Ni, 2014)
Aggressive behaviour can be physical, verbal, or nonverbal abuse.
The Oxford Dictionary (2015) defines Aggressive behaviour as:

Feelings of anger or antipathy resulting in hostile or violent behaviour; readiness to attack or confront.


Aggression is an unplanned act of anger in which the aggressor intends to hurt someone or something.
Physical aggression can be assault on a victim or destruction of personal property (Bou-Franch, 2014).

Verbal aggression is most commonly character, competence, and physical appearance attacks (Bou-Franch, 2014).

Non-verbal aggression can be frowning, rigid posture, trying to stand over others, or threatening gestures (Skills You Need, n.d.).

It can often be mistaken for assertiveness, however assertiveness still allows everyone to feel comfortable, while aggressive people seek control and to get their way even if it means hurting others (Skills You Need, n.d.).

Aggression is the most serious form of inappropriate behaviours. It can have devastating consequences, which include alienation from others, anger, embarrassment, despair and depression (Lakeland Behavioural Health System, 2014).

Anger can increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease and can also lead to stress-related problems (Lakeland Behavioural Health System, 2014).

Everyone acts in a passive-aggressive manner at some stage. Identifying when you are acting this way and why you are being passive-aggressive can be an effective way to eliminate this behaviour.

Another effective strategy to improve yourself is to take a second to understand the situation, be truthful, sympathetic and sensitive (Coaching Positive Performance, 2015).
Passive Aggressive Pam (2013) <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5baffQY0_Bxs>
Most chronically passive-aggressive individuals have four common characteristics:

They’re unreasonable to deal with.
They’re uncomfortable to experience.
They rarely express their hostility directly.
They repeat their subterfuge behaviour over time.
Displaying passive-aggressive behaviours can erode a person's self-esteem. It can also have negative effects on relationships (Ni, 2014).
Manipulative Communication
Behavioural Characteristics
Non-Verbal Behaviour
Consequences and Effects
Effective Improvement Strategies
Bridget Thompson
John Jarvis
Matthew Paas
Lauren Rulla
Outbursts of aggression are common, considered normal and can be reactive, in retaliation or even proactive (Gabbey, 2013).

This style of communication is direct, whilst being respectful of others and not too dominating or pushy (Whitson, 2014).

Although “aggressive” is a synonym of “assertive”, this style of communication is hallmarked by a sincere consideration of others (Taylor, 2013).

Communication is straightforward and direct, but not depreciating (Whitson, 2014).
“I” statements such as
“I like”, “I would like”, “I don’t like”
Co-operative phrases like
“What are your thoughts ….?”
Careful distinction of opinion & fact -
“My understanding is different”
“have to’s”
Constructive criticism minus blame -
“I feel upset when you…”
Asking others opinions -
“How does this gel with your perspective?”
Openness to exploring other solutions -
“How might we solve this another way?”
(Michel, 2008)
Active listening, eye contact, an upright, yet relaxed and open posture, characterises this style of communication (Benedict, 2015).
There is general consensus in the Psychology, Business and Life Coaching fields that this style is the most effective and linked with higher self-esteem, decreased stress, effective leadership and success (Ames, 2009).
Dr Daniel Ames discusses getting the “balance” right here, as being too assertive can come across as aggressive, however not assertive enough can be highly ineffective (Ames, 2009).
Practice being assertive, yet calm, and you will get the balance right!
Manipulation is a means by which people can assert control on unknowing victims through devious and dishonest communication techniques. The manipulator uses emotional coercion to create a situation where their own motives, goals and intent are being met (Ianov & Werner, 2010; Newton, 2011).
Machiavellian techniques used include:

Cunning or misleading behaviour
Emotional behavioural responses such as evoking tears
Asserting control in a deceptive way such as guilt tripping
Encouraging a sense of obligation to satisfy their needs –
a victim mentality.

(Newton, 2011)

A victim’s response can be influenced by indirect and misleading emotive language (Ianov & Werner, 2010). Sarcasm and persuasive language may also be used to criticise the victim, deceive and conceal a hidden agenda (Davis, Eshelman & McKay, 2008; Ianov & Werner, 2010).
The use of gesturing, facial expressions and body language can be powerful manipulative tools that encourage a desired response from the victim (Newton, 2011).

Some examples include: expressing a sad, helpless look, fidgeting, bent shoulders and speaking in a high-pitched patronising voice (Newton, 2011).
On becoming aware of being a victim of manipulation, a person may suffer feelings of guilt, inadequacy, anger, resentment, low self-esteem and reduced self-confidence (Newton, 2011).
Responding to manipulative communication can include:

Repetitive responses to the accusations
Delaying strategies to evaluate the situation
Acknowledging a minor defect in behaviour
Using assertive irony to defuse the situation
The legitimate right to have personal feelings or opinions.

(Davis, Eshelman & McKay, 2008)

Manipulative Boyfriend (2012)

Truth and Lies (n.d.)
Business men fingers crossed because of hope or lie (2015) <http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-business-men-fingers-crossed-hope-lie-shaking-hands-image50006358>
Passive-Aggressive Street Signs (2014)
The Secrets To Handling Passive-Aggressive People (2015)
The secret to dealing with passive-aggressive people (2014) <http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/entertainment/29-Jun-2014/the-secret-to-dealing-with-passive-aggressive-people>
Excited and happy group of diverse young people (2011)
Happy executives women having conversation (2011)
“One of the great challenges in social life is pushing hard enough to get one’s way but not so hard that we fail to get along with the people around us.” - Dr Ames
Full length portrait of happy
business woman balancing (2013)
Effective communication is central to many aspects of our lives as humans.
From relationships, to workplace interactions, to effective team work in any setting.
This Prezi examines 4 different Communication Styles.
Teamwork Team Together Collaboration Business Communication Outd (2013)

Effective Communication is not every person's strong point.
It is an essential skill however for many day to day activities required for us to successfully achieve personal, career, financial, collective and academic goals.
Good communication is good for everyone.
By learning about the different styles and how we may improve our own communication strategies, we can maximise our own and others success, confidence, self-esteem and positive outcomes.
Group of young people holding papers with smileys (2012)
The Passive-Aggressive in Your Life (2015)
How to be more confident (2013)
Ames, D. (2009). Pushing up to a point: Assertiveness and effectiveness in leadership and interpersonal dynamics.
Research in Organizational Behavior,
29, 111-133.
doi: 10.1016/j.riob.2009.06.010.

Benedict, C. (2015).
Assertiveness and the Four Styles of Communication.
Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://serenityonlinetherapy.com/assertiveness.htm

Blaj, G. (2011).
Happy executives women having conversation.
[Image]. Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-images-happy-executives-women-having-conversation-image19478094

Bou-Franch, P. (2014). An Introduction to Language Aggression against Women.
Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 2
(2), 177-181. doi: 10.1075/jlac.2.2.00int.

Canlas, M. (2012).
Manipulative Boyfriend.
[Image]. Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-image-manipulative-boyfriend-image29198226

Citalliance. (2013).
Full length portrait of happy business woman balancing.
[Image]. Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photography-full-length-portrait-happy-business-woman-balancing-high-resolution-photo-image32808977

Coaching Positive Performance. (2015).
8 Examples of Passive-Aggressive Behaviour.
Retrieved from http:www.coachingpositiveperformance.com/8-examples-passive-aggressive-behaviour/

Davis, M., Eshelman, E. R., & McKay, M. (2008).
The Relaxation and Stress Reduction Workbook
(6th ed.). New Harbinger Publications. EBL Ebook Library. Retrieved from http://reader.eblib.com.au.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/(S(u4twgd2wtr5f2gz3nld5ks1y))/Reader.aspx?p=776160&o=132&u=Z1zNph%2bJ3fSKbnC8meuKaw%3d%3d&t=1452525301&h=DD003B62832A152BBD9D6B4B21275E35DFB3FC48&s=22668900&ut=405&pg=1&r=img&c=-1&pat=n&cms=-1&sd=1#

De Souza Coelho, M. J. (2011).
Excited and happy group of diverse young people.
[Image]. Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photography-excited-happy-group-diverse-young-people-image1939127

Discreet Affair Finder. (2014).
How To Handle A Vengeful Mistress.
[Image]. Retrieved from http://discreetaffairfinder.com/index.php/how-to-handle-a-vengeful-mistress/

From Toxic to Love. (2015, April 28).
Emotional Manipulation.
[Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1asukxrhRBns

Gabbey, A. E. (2013).
Aggressive Behavior.
Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/aggressive-behavior#Overview1

Giles, C. (2014).
Effective Strategies for Defusing Aggressive Behavior.
Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/183245-effective-strategies-for-diffusing-aggressive-behavior/

Godfer. (2015).
Business men fingers crossed because of hope or lie.
[Image]. Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-business-men-fingers-crossed-hope-lie-shaking-hands-image50006358

Gregory. (2014).
Passive-Aggressive Street Signs.
[Image]. Retrieved from http://ericafinds.com/2014/02/say-what-you-mean-mean-what-you-say/

Ianov, M. & Werner, P. D. (2010). Behavioral communication: Individual differences in communication style.
Personality and Individual Differences, 49
(1), 19-23. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.02.033.
How To Handle A Vengeful Mistress (2014)
References cont..

Lacroix, A. (n.d.).
Truth and Lies.
[Image]. Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-illustration-truth-lies-people-prefering-comforting-above-unpleasant-truths-image49091190

Lakeland Behavioral Health System. (2014).
Aggression Effects, Signs & Symptoms.
Retrieved from http://www.lakelandbehavioralhealth.com/co-occurring/aggression/signs-effects-symptoms.

Michel, F. & Fursland, A. (2008).
Assert Yourself.
Centre for Clinical Interventions. Retrieved from http://www.cci.health.wa.gov.au/docs/Assertmodule%202.pdf

Newton, C. (2011, July 6).
The Five Communication Styles.
(Weblog post). Retrieved from http://www.clairenewton.co.za/my-articles/the-five-communication-styles.html

Ni, P. (2014).
How to Spot and Deal With Passive Aggressive People.
Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/communication-success/201401/how-spot-and-deal-passive-aggressive-people

Oxford Dictionaries. (2015).
Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Oxford Dictionaries. (2015).
Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Psychology Today. (2015).
The Passive-Aggressive in Your Life.
[Image]. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/passive-aggression

Rawpixelimages. (2013).
Teamwork Team Together Collaboration Business Communication Outd.
[Image]. Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-teamwork-team-together-collaboration-business-communication-outd-outdoors-concept-image48568990

Saturday Night Live. (2013, 17 September).
Passive Aggressive Pam.
[Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5baffQY0_Bxs

Skills You Need (n.d.)
Recognising Aggression in Others.
Retrieved from http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ps/dealing-with-aggression2.html

Taylor, L. (2013, May 4).
How to Be Assertive, Not Aggressive.
(Weblog post). Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/tame-your-terrible-office-tyrant/201305/how-be-assertive-not-aggressive

Tijanap. (2012).
Group of young people holding papers with smileys.
[Image]. Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photography-group-young-people-holding-papers-smileys-image27184597

Webdesk. (2014).
The Secret to dealing with passive-aggressive people.
[Image]. Retrieved from http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/entertainment/29-Jun-2014/the-secret-to-dealing-with-passive-aggressive-people

Wellcast. (2013).
How to be more confident.
[Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtube.com.au/watch?v=68ciKK1afDQ

Whitson, S. (2014, June 19).
Passive Aggressive vs. Assertive Behavior in Relationships.
(Weblog post). Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/passive-aggressive-diaries/201406/passive-aggressive-vs-assertive-behavior-in-relationships

It involves a variety of behaviours designed to get back at another person without him or her recognizing the underlying anger.
Emotional Manipulation (2015)
Full transcript