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Introduction to Information Systems
Transcript of Introduction to Information Systems
What is a system?
A system is a group of elements that work together to achieve a purpose and fulfil some need. A system involves resources and processes.
The education system is an example of a system - it is made up of students, teachers, schools, resources and processes. The purpose of this system is to provide students with skills and knowledge necessary to take part in society.
What is an information system?
An information system performs a set of information processes requiring participants, data/information, and information technology
Information technology makes use of integrated circuits - these are silicon chips containing transistors that can store and process data.
The first IC built in 1958 contained only a few thousand transistors. Todays IC's contain tens of millions of transistors.
The capacity of IC's has been doubling every couple of years.
What is information technology?
Information technology refers to electronic hardware and software used to process information.
Information systems consist of:
information technology (software and hardware)
The system's purpose is the reason for its existence and is used to measure its success.
The environment is everything that influences or is influenced by an information system and its purpose. It includes any factors that affect the system or are affected by it. Eg. the environment of the local library is not only the building but its location, electrical power, air conditioning, communications and funding from the government.
The environment of a system is constantly changing.
Data and information
Data is the raw information entered into an information system eg. images, audio, text, numbers.
Information is data that has been ordered and given some meaning by the people. It is created or modified by information processes and is used within the information system or is the result of the information system.
Participants are the people who carry out the information processes within the information system. Participants are the people who do the work and are known as direct users. They are involved in the actual operation of the system. Eg. someone who does data entry.
Users (indirect users) are often a source of data for the system or they receive information from the system rather than being involved in its operation. They are within the system's environment.
- involves deciding what to collect, locating it and collecting it
- involves arranging, representing, and formatting data (eg. categorising data for storage in a database)
- process that interprets data, transforming it into information (eg. using models and charts)
Storing and retrieving (saving data and obtaining saved data)
- manipulation of data/information - it occurs when data/information is modified and updated
Transmitting and receiving
- transfer of data within and between information systems
- presentation of information from an information system