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DNA structure, function, replication, transcription, translation

MYP biology DNA unit
by

sadie skiles

on 21 March 2016

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Transcript of DNA structure, function, replication, transcription, translation

DNA Structure
DNA Structure
DNA code:
4 letters
4 letters =
in the DNA alphabet:
A T C G
Double Helix:
2 strands of nucleotides

deoxyribose-
5 carbon sugar
sugar +phosphate:
is the backbone, the same in every nucleotide
Nitrogen bases:
A G C T

Purines: 2 rings: A&G
Pyrimidines: 1 ring: T&C
purine + pyrimidine = base pair
Base pairing
A T
purines 2 r
pyrimidines 1 r
complimentary
G C
G C
A T
the code letters
the 'words'
result
looks like a twisted rope ladder..
double helix
4 nucleotides
Replication
Steps of DNA replication
RNA

RNA = ribo nucleic acid
Single Stranded
Ribose sugar
4 bases: A, uracil, G, C
DNA helicases:
enzyme to un-zip!
DNA polymerases:
Enzymes to hook new
nucleotides together
Transcription
Translation
Transcription
Translation
amino acids
Protein
mRNA
tRNA
3 billion bases in the human genome
23,000 genes
gene
Functions of proteins?
Protein synthesis practice
Types to know:
mRNA
tRNA
instructions (DNA code) for making a protein is copied FROM DNA to an mRNA strand
Instructions (code) for making a protein are read (TRANSLATED) from the mRNA, which puts amino acids together to make a protein
in cytoplasm..
happens in the nuCleus
Steps:
Steps:
mRNA
..in nuCleus
..mRNA leaves nucleus, goes to the cytoplasm
tRNA
tRNA
anticodons


mechanical support skin & bone contain Collagen-fibrous protein
movement Myosin works in muscle contraction
transport molecules Hemoglobin transports oxygen, insulin transports glucose
mediate cell responses Rhodopsin is in the eye, sensitive to light, used for vision
antibody proteins immune protection, recognizes intruders
signaling Hormones! Neurotransmitters! control body responses, growth, development...
Polymer: a large molecule composed of many repeating subunits called monomers.
--monomers that make up DNA are nucleotides
DNA is a polymer
how nucleotides can differ, 'spells' code...
DNA Replication
Defined: Process of copying DNA
(during Synthesis stage of Interphase)

From Genes To Proteins:
Gene Expression

1. Initiation
RNA polymerase binds to DNA, unwinds DNA at promoter sequence

2. Elongation
One side of DNA acts as the template
RNA nucleotides pair up with each DNA nucleotide in the gene
joined together by RNA polymerase

3. Termination
pairs continue until the terminator- "end" sequence
mRNA strand is released, DNA double helix reforms


let's compare and contrast
DNA replication and
transcription!
Purpose? Location?
Enzymes?
base pairing?
End product?
type of nucleotides?
When does it occur?
Draw a table in notes:
replication transcription





codons

a sequence of 3 nucleotides on a tRNA that bind to a specific codon in mRNA
3 consecutive mRNA nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid
3 parts:
1. phosphate
2. sugar
3. nitrogen base
3 steps:
1. transcription -gene copied to mRNA
2. translation- mRNA copy translated by ribosome
3. protein synthesis- protein is built
What is RNA?
helps de-code mRNA strand- carries the correct amino acid needed
Full transcript