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DNA structure, function, replication, transcription, translation
Transcript of DNA structure, function, replication, transcription, translation
4 letters =
in the DNA alphabet:
A T C G
2 strands of nucleotides
5 carbon sugar
is the backbone, the same in every nucleotide
A G C T
Purines: 2 rings: A&G
Pyrimidines: 1 ring: T&C
purine + pyrimidine = base pair
purines 2 r
pyrimidines 1 r
the code letters
looks like a twisted rope ladder..
Steps of DNA replication
RNA = ribo nucleic acid
4 bases: A, uracil, G, C
enzyme to un-zip!
Enzymes to hook new
3 billion bases in the human genome
Functions of proteins?
Protein synthesis practice
Types to know:
instructions (DNA code) for making a protein is copied FROM DNA to an mRNA strand
Instructions (code) for making a protein are read (TRANSLATED) from the mRNA, which puts amino acids together to make a protein
happens in the nuCleus
..mRNA leaves nucleus, goes to the cytoplasm
mechanical support skin & bone contain Collagen-fibrous protein
movement Myosin works in muscle contraction
transport molecules Hemoglobin transports oxygen, insulin transports glucose
mediate cell responses Rhodopsin is in the eye, sensitive to light, used for vision
antibody proteins immune protection, recognizes intruders
signaling Hormones! Neurotransmitters! control body responses, growth, development...
Polymer: a large molecule composed of many repeating subunits called monomers.
--monomers that make up DNA are nucleotides
DNA is a polymer
how nucleotides can differ, 'spells' code...
Defined: Process of copying DNA
(during Synthesis stage of Interphase)
From Genes To Proteins:
RNA polymerase binds to DNA, unwinds DNA at promoter sequence
One side of DNA acts as the template
RNA nucleotides pair up with each DNA nucleotide in the gene
joined together by RNA polymerase
pairs continue until the terminator- "end" sequence
mRNA strand is released, DNA double helix reforms
let's compare and contrast
DNA replication and
type of nucleotides?
When does it occur?
Draw a table in notes:
a sequence of 3 nucleotides on a tRNA that bind to a specific codon in mRNA
3 consecutive mRNA nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid
3. nitrogen base
1. transcription -gene copied to mRNA
2. translation- mRNA copy translated by ribosome
3. protein synthesis- protein is built
What is RNA?
helps de-code mRNA strand- carries the correct amino acid needed