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Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse

UI 354 Powerpoint Project

Mira Pupek

on 25 October 2012

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Transcript of Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse

Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse
Mira & Brittany Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Humans have a desire to alter their moods or mental state. They want to escape reality and or alter their consciousness. Some people do this by simply doing activities that mentally stimulate them in a positive way such as reading, listening to music, physical activity, etc. Other people turn to drugs to achieve change in mood or mental state. Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Drugs posses chemicals that are similar to the ones in a person's body and some also carry an electrical charge. The body reacts to these chemicals and charges which in turn affect physical functions in different ways.

For example, the neurotransmitter dopamine is important in the motivation and reward circuits in the brain. The drug cocaine has a similar chemical structure and affects the amount of dopamine active in the brain. One does of cocaine can release 2-10 times the amount of dopamine produced by your favorite meal, song, person, or sight.

If a person takes a like this consistently then their bodies will become dependent on it, first for please and then for normalcy. Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse There are six categories of drugs.
Prescription - These are drugs that are prescribed by a doctor.
Over the counter (OTC)- These are drugs that do not need to be prescribed by a doctor, and can be bought at a drug store.
Recreational- Generally these types of drugs help people relax. The term "recreational" is vague and can be defined differently from person to person. Most of them are legal even though the are psychoactive.
Herbal- These are drugs that have some medicinal properties such as herbal teas and other products of plant origin.
Illicit- These are drugs that are illegal. All illicit drugs are psychoactive.
Commercial- These drugs are the most commonly used but least recognized chemical substances. These included things like perfumes, make ups, household cleaner, inks, dyes, paints, gardening chemicals, pesticides and much more. Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse These types of drugs are illegal to posses, sell, or manufacture.

Everyone can be affected by illicit drugs, rather if it's a friend of family member using them, the guy slowly ringing up your groceries in the check out isle, or the people who have gone to jail and use your tax dollars in order to be fed and have a place to sleep.

Many college students use illicit drugs in order to escape the stress caused from school.

In order to prevent this from happening, some colleges have tried to change the way students view college as a time to party and let loose. They have also tried to get parents involved by having them try to educate their kids while in college, as well as drug screenings and prevention and treatment programs. Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse These types of drugs increase the activity in the central nervous system and give users a "speedy" sensation. Users will feel like they have more energy and may also seem anxious or nervous. The two most commonly used stimulants are cocaine and methamphetamine.

Cocaine- This drug is from the Coca shrub and is mainly manufactured in South America and then imported into the United States (amongst other places.) Cocaine is typically snorted or rubbed on a person's gums. Cocaine gives the user a numb feeling in their noses, mouths and throats. It reaches the lungs and enters the bloodstream in less than 1 minute, and by 3 minutes the drug reaches the brain. This drug attaches to receptor sites in the central nervous system and produces an intense pleasurable feeling. This feeling only last momentarily, and the user feels the need for more instantly. Cocaine also causes users a loss of appetite, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Continued use of cocaine can lead to many things such as weight loss, irregular heart beat, convulsions, and even death among many other symptoms.
Prolonged use of cocaine by snorting it through the nose can cause major damage like loss of smell or even creating a hole through a person's septum.
Another way to ingest cocaine is called "freebasing." Users will remove the hydrochloride salt from cocaine so it can be smoked. Users can also cook cocaine down with baking soda and water in order to make it into crack cocaine, which can also be smoked. Cocaine can also be injecting intravenously. Why? How do they work? Types of Drugs Illicit Drugs Stimulants Marijuana This drug is the most commonly used illicit drug. It is typically smoke in a pipe, or rolled into a joint. Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC is the psychoactive substance in marijuana. The high dose of THC a plant has the more potent it is. Noticeable effects of marijuana are dilation of the blood vessels in the eyes, which cause them to be red or glassy looking. Other effects are a sense of feeling hungry (the munchies,) dry mouth (cotton mouth,) lowered blood pressure, and in some cases users can feel an increased seen of anxiety, paranoia, and psychosis. Marijuana on a Federal level is illegal in the United States. 13 states within America have legalized marijuana for its outstanding medicinal use. It improves appetite, relieves muscle and joint pain, relieves eye pressure of glaucoma. Marijuana is following in the same footsteps as alcohol during prohibition. With it's immense number of medical uses many people plan to see medical marijuana legal in all 50 states. Although it serves as medicine for some people, using marijuana also has some downfalls. It can effect a driver's ability to operate a motor vehicle properly and cause wrecks. One joint of marijuana is said to produce 3 times the amount of tar as one cigarette. Inhaling marijuana produces carbon dioxide in the blood stream which makes the heart have to pump harder to produce oxygen for muscles. Users immune systems can be suppressed, as well as experience changes in blood pressure and impaired memory function. Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Depressants cause slowing of cognitive and physical functions. They slow down neuromuscular activity and cause sleepiness and calmness. In some cases high doses or prolonged use can slow brain activity so much it can cause death. Alcohol is the most widely used depressant mostly because it is legal. Others include opioids, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates. Opiodlike substances that are naturally created within the body are called endorphins. Endorphins create a feeling of painlessness which is similar to the effects of opioids.
Opioids- Derived from the drug opium which comes from the opium seed pod, effects of this drug cause drowsiness, relief of pain, and euphoria. Opiods also lower the heart rate, blood pressure and respiration as well as cause dizziness, vomiting, and lack of coordination. A more powerful form and more commonly used of opiods are morphine which is used as a heavy painkiller. Codeine is derived from morphine with is a less powerful painkiller but still commonly used. Opioids are highly addictive and many that come in pill form such as Percodine and Oxycontin are highly abused in the United States.
Heroin- This drug is a white powdery substance also derived from morphine. It also comes in a black tar form (Black Tar Heroin) which is sticky, brown, bad smelling, and more pure and less expensive. This drug has no medical use although it was believed it once could cure morphine dependency. Heroin can be smoked, snorted or injected and is highly addictive and highly abused in the United States. Many people contract HIV from sharing dirty needles used to inject heroin. It causes and intense rush to users as well as drowsiness and a dreamy slow feeling. Mood swings, depressive high and depressive lows are experience when used. Heroin slows respiration and urinary output ans well as constricting of the pupils. Prolong used of injecting heroin can cause veins to collapse which can no longer be used for injecting again.
Benzodiazepines (Benzos) and Barbituates- These sedative drugs produce a tranquilizing effect on users. They promote calmness, reduced anxiety and drowsiness. Benzos are actual trangilizers (like Valium, and Xanax which are very commonly used drugs in the United States to treat depression, anxiety, pain, and insomnia.) Barbituates are sedative-hypnotic drugs (like Amytal and Seconal) which are used for extreme cases of insomnia. These drugs are less safe than benzos. Both benzos and barbituates have dangerous effects when mixed with alcohol. The combination can lead to repiratory failure and death. Depressants Hallucinogens Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Club Drugs- Synthetic drugs that produce effects similar to existing illegal drugs.
They are manufactured in chemical laboratories and are sold illegally.
They are easy to produce from available raw material and were once legal.
They are sometimes referred to as designer drugs.
The dangerous chemicals found in club drugs are:
-Gamma-Hydroxybutrate (GHB
-Ketamine (Special K)
Some users may believe these drugs are harmless, but they may cause hallucinations, paranoia, amnesia, and even death.
These drugs are tasteless and odorless, which makes them even more dangerous because of their inability to be detected. Club Drugs Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Inhalants- chemicals whose vapors, when inhaled, can cause hallucinations and create intoxicating and euphoric effects.
These are widely legal to purchase because they are not usually recognized as being drugs, but they can still be very dangerous when used incorrectly.
They are appealing because they are so cheap.
Some commonly misused inhalants include: rubber cement, model glue, paint thinner, aerosol sprays, lighter fluid, varnish, wax, spot removers, and gasoline.
most of these products are sniffed or "huffed" by users to get high quickly
The chemicals in these products reach the bloodstream quickly because they are inhaled so they reach the brain within seconds.
Also, because it is inhaled, it is more potent than swallowing a drug because it is not diluted or filtered out by the body at all.
The effects usually last for less than 15 minutes and resemble central nervous system depressants.
Users may experience dizziness, disorientation, impaired coordination, reduced judgement, and slowed reaction times.
When used with alcohol, it produces a synergistic effect and can cause severe liver damage that can be fatal.
An overdose of fumes can cause unconsciousness and death can result within 5 minutes, if the user's oxygen intake is reduced during the inhaling process.
Avery serious death syndrome with inhalants is SSD (sudden sniffing death syndrome) which can occur if the user inhales deeply and then participates in physical activity or is startled. Inhalants Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Sadly, in the United States today, the abuse of perscription medication is at an all time high.
Marijuana is the most widely abused. Other drugs that are most commonly abused in the United States can be categorized into the following categories: opioids/narcotics, depressants, and stimulants.
These are appealing drugs to abuse because they are an easily accessible and inexpensive way to get high.
Prescription drug abuse is common among teenagers. 2,500 kids between 12 and 17 abuse a pain reliever for the very first time. In 2007, more than 2.1 million teenagers in the same age group reported abusing prescription drugs. Girls of this age range are more likely to abuse prescription drugs than males of this age.
There are variations of the risks involved with prescription drug abuse due to the vast number of types of drugs there are.
Life threatening respiratory depression (reduced breathing) may result from the abuse of opioids, narcotics, or pain relievers.
Risks of seizures, respirartory depression, and decreased heart rate may result from the abuse of depressants, benzodiazepines, tranquilizers, barbiturates, and sedatives.
Stimulant abuse can cause elevated body temperature, irregular heart rate, cardiovascular system failure, fatal seizures, and even hostility or feelings of paranoia.
Additional risk for HIV, hepatitis B and C, and other bloodborne viruses can be obtained from abusing any of the drugs that use needles. Steroids Prescription Drug Abuse Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Prescription drugs are easier to get than illegal ones.
There is a process called doctor shopping, in which abusers will visit several doctors to get multiple prescriptions. Some abusers will fake and/or exaggerate symptoms so that the doctor will write them a prescription.
Some may call in fake prescriptions, and some may even trade prescriptions.
Young people may get prescription drugs from peers, friends, and family members.
Some doctors, themselves, may steal or sell the prescription drugs illegally.
Some internet pharmacies do not require prescriptions. Prescription Drug Abuse Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse People may be tempted to try illegal drugs by the stories of those they have heard that have done drugs and have paid no penalties.
People also convince themselves that these drugs are harmless, but we know better.
External risks accompanies the drug use beyond the drugs affecting only the users. It all adds up to helping contribute to a serious national problem.
The financial deficit illegal drugs cause the U.S. is estimated to be around $180.9 billion! This cost includes things related to drug abuse such as: substance treatment and prevention, health care, reduced job productivity and lost earnings, and social consequences such as crime and threats to social welfare.
About half of expenditures to fight crime are related to illegal drugs.
46% of these expenses are covered by the government and about 44% of these expenses are covered by abusers and their families.
It is about $35 billion on cociane, $10 billion on marijuana, $10 billion on heroin, and $5 billion on methamphetamines. Which is 8 times the amount that the federal government spends on researching HIV/AIDS, cancer, and heart disease put together. Illegal Drug Use in the U.S. Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse In public opinion polls the most important strategy for fighting drug abuse is viewed as educating young people. Other strategies also endorsed include stricter border surveillance to reduce drug trafficking, longer prison sentences for drug dealers, increased government spending on prevention, enforcing antidrug laws, and greater cooperation between government agencies and private groups and individuals providing treatment assistance.
These approaches above mentioned will most likely help, but they do not provide a complete end to the solution.
It is vitial that in order to fight off drug use that has been part of human behavior for thousands of years is to educate ourselves and develop self-discipline so we can avoid dangerous drug dependence.
Antidrug strategies used to include total prohibition and scare tatics. Both strategies were ineffective.
Now researchers in the field of drug education agree that a multimodal approach is best, in which students are taught the difference between drug use, misuse, and abuse, and factual information is presented without the scare tatics. They also put the emphasis on things that are important to young people and thing that will really get their attention.
A program called D.A.R.E. Drug Abuse Resistance Education is set up to educate students but it has not really worked.
At risk groups need to be studied so there can be a better understanding of the circumstances in which makes one susceptible to drug use. It will require a lot of time, money, and effort by educators, parents, and policymakers to make sure that the youth get enough of what they need to be able to reject drug use. Possible Solutions to the Problem Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse The National Survey on Drug Abuse and Health says that 75.2% of all U.S. workers who use illicit drugs are employed full- or part-time.
Since there is such a high number of workers using illegal drugs, the costs that American businesses have to pay is billions of dollars.
By loosing that money, businesses also loose work performance and efficiency, lost productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.
Furthermore, workers that abuse, function at 67% of their capacity, that costs American businesses about $81 billion a year just in productivity loss.
The highest rates of employed illegal drug abusers occur in food preparation, food service, bartending, construction, and transportation and material-moving industries.
The self admittant drug abusers tend to be: 18-25, less educated, male, divorced or never married, white, and low paid.
Drug users are also 2.2 times more likely to request early dismissal or time off, 2.5 times more likely to have absences of 8 days or more, and 3 times more likely to be late for work.
Many workplaces request mandatory drug tests which is controversial. Some claim that it violates the rights of the Fourth Amendment. However, several court decisions have affirmed the right of employers to test their employees for drug use, saying that 4th Amendment rights only apply to governmental employees.
Most Americans do support drug testing. Drug testing is expensive and may not be accurate. Drugs in the Work Place Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Drug misuse- occurs when a drug is taken for reasons other than what it is intended to.

Drug abuse- occurs when a drug is used excessively and may cause harm to someone. Misuse and Abuse Cocaine Crack Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Stimulants Continued Amphetamines include a large group of synthetics agents that stimulate the central nervous system. In small doses users can feel more alert, fatigue can be lessened, and their moods can be elevated. Repeated use of amphetamines can develop physical and psychological dependency. Users can experience increased heart rate, breathing and blood pressure. Certain types of amphetamines are actually used as prescription drugs like Adderall and Ritalin.
A common illicit form of amphetamines in methamphetamine. It is a stronger, longer lasting (when compared to cocaine) drug that strongly activates the reward center. It produces a sense of euphoria which makes this drug highly addictive. Methamphetamine can cause brain damage, meth mouth, impaired motor skills and cognitive skills as well as elevate the risk of heart attack after prolong used. Small doses produce increased physical activity, as well as alertness and loss of appetite, while larger doses can led to hallucinations, irregular heart beat, and even death. Prolonged use can keep users up for days.
Methamphetamine can be smoked, snorted, injected or eaten. All different methods of ingesting have different effects, and tolerance develops quickly.
Ice is a more potent form of methamphetamine that imported from Asia. This form is more potent and the effects can last up to 12 hours. Methamphetamine use is becoming a bigger and bigger problem within the United States. Because it is relatively easy to make it is estimated that 12 million Americans have tried this drug. Ecstasy
this drug creates feelings of openess and warmth, combined with the mind-expanding charachteristics of hallucinogens.
effects of this drug can begin within 30 minutes and may last between 4-6 hours.
It increases heart-rate and blood pressure and may raise body temperature to the point of cardiovascular failure
Chronic uses damages the brain's ability to think and to regulate emotion, memory, sleep, and pain.
This drug is a powerful tranquilizer similar to Valium but stronger.
It produces a sedative effect, amnesia, muscle relaxation, and slowed psychomotor responses.
It is the most publicized "date rape" drug and is a growing problem on college campuses.
The manufacturer changed the formula to give the drug a bright, blue color in hopes to make it easier to detect in a drink or punch bowl. Club Drugs: Ecstasy, Rohypnol, GHB, and Ketamine GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate)
This drug is a central nervous system depressant that has euphoric, sedative, and anabolic (bodybuilding) effects.
It was previously sold to body builders, over the counter, to help reduce body fat by the FDA in 1992, and is now a Schedule I controlled substance.
It is not a pill, but an, easy to make, odorless, tasteless fluid.
It's side effects includes loss of memeory, unconsciousness, amnesia, nausea, vomiting, seizures, memory loss, hallucinations, coma, respiratory distress, and even death.
This drug is also known as Special K and when in liquid for it is used as an anesthetic in many hospital and veterinary clinics.
When drug dealers steal the drug in it's liquid form, they typically dry it out by cooking it and grinding it into powder.
It causes hallucinations, inhibits sensory input, and fills the brain with visions, dreams, memories, and sensory distortions.
It's effects are less severe than Ecstasy and therefore it has grown in popularity. Club Drugs: Ecstasy, Rohypnol, GHB, and Ketamine Amyl Nitrite
These are also known as "poppers" or "rush".
It is packaged in small, cloth-covered glass capsules that can be crushed to release the active chemical for the user to inhale.
This drug is often perscribed to alleviate chest pain in heart patients, because it dilates small blood vessels and reduces blood pressure.
Dilation of blood vessels in the genital region is thought to enhance sensations or perceptions of orgasm.
It also may cause fainting, dizziness, warmth, and skin flushing.
Nitrous Oxide
Nitrous oxide is sometimes used as an adjunct to dental anesthesia or minor surgical anesthesia.
It is also used as the propellant chemical in aerosol products such as whipped cream.
Users may experience a sense of euphoria, floating sensations, illusions, pain relief, and a silly feeling.
It is often called "laughing gas" because some people laugh and giggle while on it.
Sustained inhalation can lead to unconsciousness, coma, and death. Dangerous Inhalants Amyl Nitrite and Nitrous Oxide Anabolic steroids- Artificial forms of the hormone testosterone that promote muscle growth and strength. The public know of these drugs through the media stories of professional and amateur athletes using them.
Ergogenic drugs- Substance believed to enhance athletic performance. These are used by people who believe the drugs will increase their strength, power, bulk, speed, and athletic performance.
About 17-20% of college athletes used steroids, but now that the NCAA has made the drug-testing policies more strict, that percentage has dropped down to about 1.1%.
Steroids are more commonly used by younger people. It is also more common for males to use steroids than females, but more females are starting to use them to "increase their looks and/or athletic ability." People wit body image problems are also more likely to used steroids.
Steroids come in two forms: 1.) injectable solutions 2.) pills
Anabolic steroids make the user experience a state of euphoria, diminished fatigue, and increased bulk and power. These characteristics make the steriods addictive. A psychological withdrawal can be felt when a user stops using these drugs and sometimes severe depression that may lead to suicide. The withdrawal process has been known to last for a year or more.
Side effects of this drug include: mood swings (aggression and violence/ "roid rage"), acne, liver tumors, elevated cholesterol levels, hypertension, kidney disease, and immune system disturbances. When sharing needles, there is always the possible risk of HIV.
In women, using large doses of steroids may actually cause them to develop a lower voice, increased facial and body hair, male pattern baldness, enlarged clitoris, smaller breasts, and changes in or the absence of menstruation due to the large amounts of testosterone in the steroids.
In healthy males, the anabolic steroids shut down the body's production of testosterone, causing men's breasts to grow and testicles to atrophy.
The U.S. Congress wanted to decrease/shut down the use of steriods, so in 1990, they passed the Anabolic Steroids Control Act, which made it a crime to possess, prescribe, or distribute anabolic steroids for anything other than to treat specific diseases.
Anabolic steroids are currently a Schedule III drug and the penalties for illegally using them which is 5 years in jail with a fine of $250,000 just for the first offense, and for every offense afterwards is 10 years in jail with a fine of $500,000.
Steroid alternatives include GHB and clenbuterol.
The most common erogenic drugs are supplements containing androstenedine, which is an adrenal hormone that increases testosterone. Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Steroids Methamphetamine Pipe used to smoke
methamphetamine Marijuana Leaf Marijuana in
smokeable form Valium Xanax Amytal Also known as Psychedelics, these drugs are capable of creating auditory and visual hallucinations as well as changes in mood, thoughts and feelings. Synesthesia is the mixing of sensory messages that is caused by use of psychedelics. This occurs are the major receptor sites located at the bottom of the brain stem and upper end of the spinal cord. When this occurs reality can seem altered as users experience unusual visual stimulation (wavy walls, smelling colors and hearing taste.) The most widely recognized hallucinogens are LSD, mushrooms, psilocybin, and PCP which are all illegal to carry, manufacture or sell.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD or acid)- This drug was first created in the 1930s in the efforts to make medically useful drugs from ergot fungus found on cereal grains. LSD when ingested was capable of unlocking the secrets of the mind. Psychiatrists believed the drug would be beneficial to patients experiencing major traumas. The drug became illegal in the 1970s but is gaining popularity today. The most common form of LSD is blotter. This is made by blotting droplets of LSD onto tiny squares of paper. The paper is then placed in a users mouth and is either chewed on or swallowed. Other forms of LSD are gel tabs made from LSD gelatin, or microdots which is LSD in pill form. LSD produces several physical effects such as increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure and temperature, roughened skin, muscles tremors and twitches perspiration, chills, headaches and mild nausea. When consumed a user can feel an extreme feeling of euphoria, distortions of perceptions. LSD is not addictive but can cause a psychological dependence.
Mescaline- This drug is one of hundreds od chemicals derived from the peyote cactus. It was used by natives of the U.S and Latin America for religious purposes. Dried peyote buttons are usually eaten and induce vomiting and nausea. Effects can be felt in 30 to 90 minutes and creates powerful hallucinations and stimulation to the central nervous system.
Psilocybin- This is the active chemical in mushrooms. They can be cultivated from spored or harvested in the wild. Psilocybin has very similar effects to LSD and can last from 4 to 6 hours.
Phencyclidine (PCP)- This drug is a synthetic substance that became popular in the 1970s. It is a white, crystal like powder that users sprinkle onto marijuana and smoke. It is extremely dangerous and unpredictable as users feel either euphoria or dysphoria. Hallucinations, delusion and delirium occur and sides effects to the drug are slurred speech, impaired coordination, reduced sensitivity to pain and reduced heart rate and respiratory rate. PCP Mescaline LSD Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Chapter Questions 1. What is the difference between drug misuse and abuse?
2. List the six categories of drugs.
3. Illicit drugs are illegal to ______, ________, and ________.
4. What is cocaine made from and where is it manufactured?
5. How can methamphetamine be ingested?
6. The psychoactive substance is marijuana is Tetrahydrocannabinol, which is also know as what?
7. What is the most common form of LSD?
8. Do club drugs, such as ecstasy, GHB, Special K, and Rohypnol have a bitter taste?
9. What kind of drugs are the cheapest and quickest high?
10. Do all pharmacies require a prescription (including internet pharmacies)?
11. When abusers visit several doctors to get several prescriptions, it is called ______ ________.
12. True or False: College students take prescription drugs to decrease their focus. College abuse in the U.S. has dramatically increased over the past decade.
Prescription drug use among college students is higher than the use of just about every drug except for marijuana.
Many college students have a false perception that prescription drugs are safer than other illegal drugs because they are prescribed by doctors and approved by the FDA.
Students also believe the misuse of presription drugs are more socailly acceptable than other drug use.
Prescription drugs are abused by college students with the belief that it will either increase their well-being or performance; or that it will increase their conentration, studying capabilities, and their alertness; and sometimes to relax or get high.
From 1993 to 2005, the rate of student abuse of prescription opioids rose 343%! Prescription stimulants rose 93%; prescription tranquilizers rose 450%; and prescription sedatives rose 225%!
College men are more likely to abuse than college women. College Students and Prescription Drug Abuse
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