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Chapter 21 Section 3
Transcript of Chapter 21 Section 3
Central European Monarchs Clash
The Thirty Years War
Lutheran and Catholic princes tried to gain followers
States Form in Central Europe
The most important result of the Thirty Years War was that it marked the beginning of the modern state system in Europe
Prussia Challenges Austria
Like the Hapsburgs, the Hohenzollerns had ambitions of becoming absolute rulers
Each side felt threatened by the Calvinists who were gaining many followers
Tensions mounted. The Lutherans and the Catholics each formed unions:
The Protestant Union
The Catholic League
Only a small spark was needed to ignite a full scale holy war
Bohemian Protestants Revolt
Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, closes some Protestant churches in the Czech Kingdom of Bohemia
The closings anger the Protestants and they revolt
Ferdinand II sends an army to Bohemia to crush the revolt
Several German princes took this opportunity to challenge their Catholic emperor
Thus began the Thirty Years War, a conflict over religion and territory and for power among the European ruling families.
Throughout the first 12 years of the war, Hapsburg armies from Austria and Spain crushed the troops hired by Protestant princes
The Czech uprising was crushed
Even the German Protestants who supported the Czechs were defeated
Ferdinand II paid his army of 125,000 men by allowing them to plunder German villages.
This huge army destroyed everything in its path.
Protestant Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden and his army help shift the tide of war towards the Protestants
Adolphus and his army drove the Hapsburg armies out of northern Germany before Aldolphus was killed in battle in 1632
Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin of France took over from there and dominated the remaining years of the war.
Although Catholic, these Cardinals feared the Hapsburgs more than the Protestants.
So Cardinal Richelieu sent French troops to join the German and Swedish Protestants in their struggle against the Hapsburg armies
Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ended the war.
The treaty had these important consequences:
Weakened the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria
Strengthened France by awarding it German territory
Made the German princes independent of the Holy Roman Emperor
Ended religious wars in Europe
introduced a new method of peace negotiation in which all participants meet to settle problems of a war and decide the terms of peace
*This method is still used today
Beginning of Modern States...
The treaty abandoned the idea of a Catholic Empire ruling over most of Europe.
The treaty recognized Europe as a group of equal, independent states.
The formation of strong states in central Europe was a slow process due to the devastation brought on by the war.
The major powers of this region were the kingdom of Poland, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empire.
None of which were very powerful in the mid-1600's
Economic Contrasts with the West
Serfs slowly won freedom and moved to towns
Serfs joined middle-class townspeople and gained economic power
Landowning aristocracy passed laws restricting the ability of serfs to gain freedom and move to cities
Nobles wanted to keep serfs on the land, where they could produce large harvests which they could then sell for large profits to western Europe
Several Weak Empires
Polish nobility elected a Polish King but sharply limited his power
The Ottoman Empire had been on the decline since Suleyman the Magnificent had failed to win the Battle of Vienna in 1529
The Holy Roman Empire was seriously weakened by the Thirty Years War.
No longer able to command the obedience of the German states, the Holy Roman Empire had no real power.
In the late 1600s, two German-speaking families decided to try to become absolute rulers themselves...
Austria Grows Stronger
The Austrian Hapsburgs took several steps to become absolute monarchs:
Reconquered Bohemia during the Thirty Years War
Wiped out Protestantism in Bohemia and created a new Czech nobility that pledged loyalty to them
After the war, the Hapsburg ruler centralized the government and created a standing army.
By 1699, the Hapsburgs had retaken Hungary from the Ottoman Empire
In 1711, Charles VI became the Hapsburg ruler.
Maria Theresa Inherits the Austrian Throne
Charles the VI persuaded other leaders of Europe to sign an agreement that declared they would recognize his eldest daughter as the heir to all his Hapsburg territories
The Hapsburgs wanted to make sure they continued to rule over all of the empire
That heir was a young woman named Maria Theresa
In 1640, Frederick William, later known as the Great Elector, decided that having a strong army was the only way to ensure safety
The Great Elector created the greatest standing army in Europe.
To pay for this army, they established permanent taxation
They then weakened the representative assemblies of their territories
Prussia's land owning nobility, the Junkers, resisted the king's growing power
However, King Frederick William I bought their cooperation by giving the Junkers the exclusive right to be officers in his army.
Prussia became a rigidly controlled, highly militarized society
Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great was forced to witness his friend's beheading after they tried to run away together when they were teenagers
It was feared that he would not be strong enough to rule over Prussia
However, Frederick II followed his father's military policies when he came to power, despite bitter memories
However, he did soften some of his father's laws:
Encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform
Believed that a ruler should be like a father to his people
War of Austrian Succession
Soon after Frederick II took power in Prussia, he decided to go after Austria's land of Silesia
Frederick the Great underestimated Maria Theresa's strength because she was a woman.
Frederick sent his army to occupy Silesia, beginning the War of Austrian Succession
Maria Theresa traveled to Hungary and asked the Hungarian nobles for aid.
Great Britain also joined Austria to fight its longtime enemy, France, which was Prussia's ally
Maria Theresa's armies stopped the Prussian aggression, but she lost Silesia in the process in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748
With the acquisition of Silesia, Prussia became a major European power
The Seven Years' War
Maria Theresa decided the French kings were no longer Austria's chief enemies, so she made an alliance with them.
A diplomatic revolution took place:
Frederick signs an alliance to Austria's former ally, Great Britain
Russia began playing a role in European affairs by signing an alliance with Austria
Austria, France and Russia vs. Britain and Prussia
In 1756, Frederick attacked Saxony, an Austrian ally, starting the Seven Years War in which every great European power would be involved.
Fought in Europe, India and North America
The war did not change the territorial situation in Europe
Britain emerged as the real victors in the Seven Years' War:
France lost its colonies in North America
Britain gained sole economic domination of India
THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR
Map by Astrokey44
A FANCY WORD FOR THROWING SOMEONE OUT OF A WINDOW
Photo Credit: DigitalExtropy
They better recognize
FATHER OF MODERN WARFARE
DOMINIONS OF THE HOUSE OF HAPSBURG
PEACE OF WESTPHALIA
Lets not kill each other over religion anymore
Yes, tis silly!
What he said!