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on 12 May 2011

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Transcript of 4

Unit 4: MOVEMENT 4.1.2 Range of Motion (ROM) Elevation v Depression Rotation v Circumduction Flexion v Extension Abduction v Adduction Plantar Flexion v Dorsiflexion Adduction M T O O Y P E S F R 4.2 4.3 4.4 Muscles are named for their: Shape
Number of Origins Trapezius and Rhomboid minor Examples Trapezius means trapezoid
Rhomboid minor means diamond-shaped smaller
Gluteus maximus and Gluteus minimus Gluteus maximus means buttock large/ outermost
Gluteus minimus means buttock small/ innermost Frontalis and Temporalis Frontalis means frontal bone
Temporalis means temporal bone Orbicularis Oculi and Transverse abdominis Orbicularis oculi means medial wall of orbit
Extensor digitorum longus means a lateral epicondyle of humerus
Origin vs Insertion Origin of a muscle- is the muscle attaching to the relatively fixed bone of its joints
Insertion- is the end of the muscle attaching to the freely moving bone of its joint 4.2.1 Muscle Rules 4.2.2 Building a Better Body 4.2.6 You've Got Nerve 4.3.1 The Heart of the Matter 4.3.2 Varicose Veins 4.3.4 Cardiac Output 4.3.3 Go With the Flow 4.4.1 The Body's Response to Exercise In unit 4, we will delve deeper into the complexity of movement in the body. Whether it is blood flow, muscles, joints, or energy, body systems must work together to allow a person to walk, jump, and run. Origin vs Attachment Example a. Origin: temporal bone
b. Insertion: mandible
c. The structure is linked to the function because its
shape allows it to elevate and retract the mandible Explain how the structure and function of one of the muscles of the chest relates to some of muscle rules you learned in Activity 4.2.1.
The pectoralis minor’s origin is the second through fifth, third through fifth, or second through fourth ribs. “Pector” means the breast, chest, and the thorax, while “minor” means lesser. The function of the pectoralis minor is to serves to move the shoulder area forward. This can be seen by shrugging your shoulder forward. Are the muscles of pectoralis major adductors or abductors? Explain.

They are adductors because the pectoralis major moves towards the midline when flexing and rotating arm medially. How do you "build" chest muscles?
1. Barbell Bench Press
2. Dumbbell Bench Press
3. Push Ups
4. Chest Dips
5. Dumbbell Flyes Major Muscles of the chest:
Pectoralis Major
Pectoralis Minor
Serratus Anterior
Intercoastals The Three Types of Muscle

1. Skeletal

2. Cardiac

3. Smooth Voluntary Involuntary Involuntary Endomysium- each muscle fiver us wrapped in a connective tissue sheath
Perimysium- several sheathed fibers are wrapped in a coarser membrane of fibers
Fasicle- a bundle of fibers
Epimysium- many fasicles are bound together by more connective tissue, which covers the entire muscle
The epimysia blend into TENDONS or APONEUROSES Major Parts of the Muscle Carpal Tunnel... What is it? The median nerve becomes squished
The median nerve the palm side of the fingers and allow movement in the fingers
A narrow passageway of ligament and bones at the base of the hand, the carpal tunnel houses the median nerves and tendons
Causes of this disease include genetically having smaller tunnels, injury to the wrist, work stress, etc
Carpal tunnel falls under repetitive motion injuries because it can be caused by prolonged repititious use of the hand, which can furthermore cause injury Radial Nerve
If it was damaged, a person may loose sensation (i.e. pain or numbness) in the back of the hand The "Funny" Bone Unprotected by bone and muscle, the ulnar nerve is the lagest nerve of its kind in the entire human body. The ulnar nerve lays between bone and skin. When a person bangs their "funny bone," the sensation that they feel is quite sharp. The 3 most frequent jobs for carpal tunnel
Police officer
Truck Drivers
3 ways to fix it
Frequent breaks
Changing position
Exercising The Blood Flow Path Explain how each of the 3 types of muscle assist with moving blood around the body.
Cardiac muscle makes up the heart. It assists in pushing blood from 1 chamber to the next
Smooth muscle is found in the walls of blood vessels, where it squeezes the stream of blood flowing through the vessels to help maintain blood pressure
Skeletal muscle is responsible for moving the body and helps to keep blood ciruculation constant Which structure in the heart functions as the natural pacemaker? What does this term mean?

The natural pacemaker is a specialized bundle of nerve fibers called the sinoatrial node (SA node) and it is found at the top of the right atrium of the heart. The term natural pacemaker refers to a mass of specialized cells that produce electrical impulses causing it to beat. What is the difference between pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation?
Pulmonary circulation-moves blood to the heart so this oxygenated blood can be delievered
Systemic circulation- pumps oxygen to rich blood to the body and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart to be sent out for refueling Variocose Veins
Varicose veins are swollen, twisted, and sometimes painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection of blood. Symptoms: Fullness, heaviness, aching, and sometimes pain in the legs; Visible, enlarged veins. Causes
Prolonged Standing
Weight Gain Circulatory Routes Cardiac output= The amount of blood that leaves the left side of the heart in 60 seconds. How to Calculate It
Cardiac output(ml/min)=stroke volume (ml/beat) x heart rate (beats/min) What are the consequences of a low cardiac output? How will other systems be affected? -The symptoms of this medical condition include electrocardium changes, weight gain, decreased urine output, weakness, dizziness, cold clammy skin, restlessness, and fatigue. How does damage to the conduction system of the heart impact stroke volume? In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat. But if each beat is slower due to damage, than the cardiac input will also slow down. Putting it ALL together... Imagine running a mile race Your body prepares to enter flight or fight At the Start
Autonomic system activated
1 Minute into the Race
Muscles feel like they are burning
Heart rate increases
Faster breaths via the respiration system
Half Way through the race
Body temperature increases
Sweat is stimulated by the hypothalamus 10 Minutes after the Race
Autonomic division at work
Secretion of ADH
At the Finish Line
Dizzy feeling
Sick sensation in the stomach
Heart rate is still up, but beginning to decrease Our body sweats to stay cool during exercise. How does this seem to counteract the action of the urinary system?
It maintains homeostasis by getting rid of liquid wastes Which muscle energy system(s) is (are) used for each of the following activities?
The 50 meter dash- phosphagen is used to run because it is made for explosive movements that have a short duration. The 50 meter dash is over within seconds, once the body is beginning to warm up... the race is over
A game of basketball- phosagen is used to run because it is made for explosive movements that have a short duration. In basketball, the plays are fairly short; you pass, catch, and score. 4.1 4.1.1 Bones, Joints, Action Joint- A point at which parts of an artificial structure are joined Synovial Joint- A fully moveable joint in which the synovial (joint) cavity is present between the two articulating bones There are 6 types Pivot Rotation around an axis Ball-and-Socket Definition- rounded head of one bone fits into a cuplike cavity of the other and admits movement in any direction Ellipsoid (Condyloid) Definition- permits movement in two planes, allowing flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction Saddle Definition- the opposing surfaces are reciprocally concave-convex Hinge Definition- Joint between bones (as at the elbow or knee) that permits motion in only one plane
Gliding Definition- freely moving joint in which the articulations allow only gliding motions. Neck Shoulder Wrist Metacarpals Elbow Thumb Gonimeter- device used to measure angle of the joints and skull But... what role does cartiliage, tendons, and ligaments play in a joint? What roles do ligaments, cartiliage, and tendons play in joints? Ligaments hold bones together at joints.
Cartilage covers the ends of bones at the joints and allows the them to slip smoothly over each
Tendons attach muscles to bones, so the muscles' contractions can be transferred across the joints
and pull on the bones. AND... how do bones muscles and joints work together to produce movement? Muscles- muscles are also necessary for movement: They're the masses of tough, elastic tissue that pull our bones when we move.
Joints occur where two bones meet. They make the skeleton flexible — without them, movement would be impossible
Bones provide support for our bodies and help form our shape. An example In conclusion, the human body systems must work together to create movement. From the circulatory routes to the muscle fibers to the hypothalamus, every small feature contributes to the whole. Alone each part is small, but together it allows to move and explore their world. How do muscles contract?
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