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Lifestyle Disease

Addiction
by

Emily Raffa

on 13 November 2012

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Transcript of Lifestyle Disease

Drug Addiction The National Institute on Drug Abuse defines addiction as "a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences". A History of Drug Use In America Who is affected by addiction? Technically, addiction affects everyone - and not necessarily just the people taking the illicit drugs.
-examples: families, friends, community, coworkers. Lifestyle Diseases: Definition 1492 1887 1861 1613 Christopher Columbus discovers the Americas. The Natives offer him tobacco leaves. 1651 What drugs can a person be addicted to? The focus of the Drug Enforcement Agency is illicit drugs, such as:
Alcohol
Amphetamines
"Club drugs"
Cocaine
Heroin LSD
Marijuana
MDMA (Ecstasy)
PCP
Prescription drugs
Nicotine Rum is discovered by English sailors. By 1655, sailors are allotted a daily ration of the substance. Within ten years, the Massachusetts' courts declare rum to be a menace to society. Tobacco becomes the new world's major export German chemist F.W.A Serturner discovers morphine Morphine and Opium become the pain relievers of choice for wounded Civil War Soldiers. Addiction becomes so prevalent among this population, it's called "the army disease" Prevalence Most likely in males and those between ages 18-25.
Race and income (as a whole) are not factors. 1804 1884 Cocaine is heralded as the "miracle cure" for ailments. Two years later, it becomes the key ingredient is a popular beverage, "Coca-Cola" Why do people get addicted? Addiction is complicated: It depends on:
1. biology/genetics
2. environment
3. drug strength Oregon becomes the first state to ban cocaine. Bayer is the first pharmaceutical company to sell heroin as an over the counter cough suppressant. 1898 Congress passes the Pure Food and Drug Act, which prohibits the use of poisonous medicines. 1906 California becomes the first state to ban marijuana for non-medical purposes. 1915 1920 Prohibition takes effect. 1936 2000's 1964 1960's "Reefer Madness" is released to warn teenagers about the dangers of marijuana 1937 Marijuana Tax Act is passed as the first act in criminalizing marijuana The use of recreational drug use grows exponentially, especially in middle class young white people on college campuses. 1971 President Nixon declares War on Drugs Addiction and Society 1 out of every $4 Medicaid spends is on inpatient care associated with substance abuse. 1980 Freeway Ricky Ross, an LA drug dealer, develops a smoke-able form of cocaine, known today as crack. Drug abusers account for more than one-third of the growth in state prisons since 1985. 1983 Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E) is developed to teach school children about the dangers of drugs. Over the next twenty years, substance abuse and addiction will cost the Medicare system upwards of one trillion dollars. Changing attitudes about marijuana have sparked political debate over the legalization. Substance
abuse Violent
crimes Property
crimes Drug
charges Possession Trafficking Manufacturing Homicide Sexual
assault Robbery Larceny Burglary Vandalism The Anatomy of Addiction Substance abuse/addiction
is an "equal opportunity
problem". Costs to Society This abnormal activity floods the reward system with an excess of dopamine, either by overproducing it or inhibiting the reuptake. The excess of dopamine causes an intense state of euphoria. Over time, the excess of dopamine destroys its own receptors, depleting the effectiveness of the reward circuit. Addicts have to continually take more drugs in order to bring their dopamine levels to normal. Continued drug use affects many other areas of the brain, including the neurotransmitter glutamate, which is necessary for cognition. Drug chemicals mimic the neurotransmitters found naturally in the brain. They fool the brain's receptors to activate abnormal activity. recent bath salts "epidemic" Drug use runs rampant in soldiers fighting in Vietnam. Marijuana is the most common, but more troubling is the booming usage of heroin. Continued drug abuse causes damage to the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system, areas crucial for decision making, learning, memory, and behavior regulation. "Addiction Need Not Be A Lifetime Sentence." Treatment Drug treatment is intended to help addicts stop compulsive drug seeking and use. It can occur in a variety of different forms and settings.
Because addiction is a mental disease, an addict simply cannot "stop taking drugs" and be cured. Treatment needs to be long term, and often involving repeated episodes in order to reach the goal of abstinence. Research based approach from the National Institute of Drug Abuse 13 Principles of Effective Treatment Medications prove to be effective when used in conjunction with therapy. Individual and group counseling are the most used format for treatment. This attends to the individual's needs while also providing him or her with a peer support system. No single treatment works for everyone. Drug addiction is a complex disease that affects brain function and behavior. (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Treatment needs to meet the multiple needs of the individual. Drug addiction is a common comorbid factor with mental disorders. Treatment does not have to be voluntary in order to be effective. Detoxification is the first stage in effective treatment, but is not effective by itself. Drug users are at an extremely high risk for infectious diseases (HIV, Tuberculosis, AIDS, Hepatitis, etc.). Treatment should provide screening for these and provide counseling to reduce the risk of contraction or spreading. Treatment needs to be readily available to everyone. Effective treatment should last over a long period of time. Methadone and buprenorphine are used to stabilize heroin addicts.
Naltrexone is useful for opioid addictions and some alcohol dependency.
Other medications for alcoholism include acamprosate, disulfiram, and topiramate. An individual's treatment plan should be continuously assessed and altered depending on their needs. Relapses will occur during treatment; drug use should be monitored. In addition to stopping drug use, treatment is also intended to return the addicted individual to a functioning, productive member of society. Participation in treatment has been shown to significantly decrease criminal activity. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Where to find help The National Suicide Prevention Line The National Alliance on Mental Illness and Mental Health America 12 Step Programs Their website and hotline offers a locator for various inpatient and outpatient treatment programs throughout the country. They offer much more than suicide help. They'll connect callers with professionals in their area. Both organizations offer local self-help groups for patients and their families. Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Cocaine Anonymous, offer twelve step group programs that can complement and extend the effects of long-term treatment. Brand, R. (Producer) (2012). From addiction to recovery [Web]. References Shmoop Editorial Team. (November 11, 2008).History of Drugs in America Timeline of Important Dates. Retrieved October 28, 2012, from http://www.shmoop.com/drugs-america/timeline.html National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2007). Drugs, brain, and behavior: The science of addiction. Retrieved from website: http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/soa_0.pdf National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2009). Principles of drug addiction treatment. Retrieved from website: http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/podat_0.pdf Drug Enforcement Agency. (2011). Drugs of abuse. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/dea/docs/drugs_of_abuse_2011.pdf The College on Problems of Drug Dependence. (2008). Addiction research: a national imperative . Retrieved from http://www.cpdd.vcu.edu/Pages/Index/Index_PDFs/TransitionPaperOctober20081.pdf The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse. (1994). The cost of substance abuse. Retrieved from http://www.casacolumbia.org/articlefiles/379-Cost of Substance Abuse Report 2.pdf U.S. Department of Justice. (1994). Drugs and crime data. Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/DRRC.PDF 23 million addicts worldwide. 2.7 million in the U.S.
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