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Transcript of assessing listening
Leonardo Zumbado S. Discrete-point approach: during the 1950s, this approach broke listening into component elements and assessed them separately. Stemmed from two beliefs; it was important to be able to isolate one element of language from a continuous stream of speech and that spoken language was believed to be the same as written language, only presented orally. Listening Test Delivery Models Of Listening it is necessary to understand the nature of listening before developing appropriate assessment techniques. Phonemic Discrimination: in this task, the student listens to one word spoken in isolation or in a one-sentence context and then tries to identify which word was said. To learn to speak, students must first learn to understand the spoken language they hear. how is the assessment of listening? Approaches to listening assessment techniques for assessing listening comprehension it is one of the least understood and the least developed. "the poor cousin amongst the various language skills."
(Nunan, 2002) how important is listening in the different teaching environments? Intensive English Program, Community College, University Program. listening skills are important for academic success. conversational classes, Non-academic Programs, Survival classes. these programs focus on conversation. any kind of assessment will emphasize listening and speaking. more emphasize is given to speaking than to listening. K-12
(kindergarten-12th grade) listening is not "taught" and is therefore not assessed in any formal way. comprehension occurs when students take in a word, decode it, and link it with other words to form sentences. student uses background knowledge of context and situation to make sense of what is heard. Integrative approach: early 1970s, integrative tests attempt to assess a learner's capacity too use many bits at the same time. the whole of language is greater then sum of its parts. Communicative approach: 1970s, the listener must be able to comprehend the message and then use it in context. communicative question formats should be authentic in nature. Considerations in Designing Listening Tasks Background knowledge: take care to insure that students are not able to answer test questions based on their background knowledge rather than on their comprehension. Test content: the test specification might provide you with information about the following; text types, speech types, mode of input, varieties of english to be used, scripted or inscripted input, and lengh of input. Text: look for texts you like and then infuse oral characteristics into them. Vocabulary: students must know between 90-95 percent of the words to understnd a text/script. seed vocabulary from the institution word lists into listening scripts whenever posible. Test structure: in any test, start whith an easy question. this will lower students' test anxiety by relaxing them at the outst of the test. question should be ordered as they are heard in the passage, and items should be spaced ut in the passage for good vontent coverage. many teachers only include content that is easy to test, such as dates and numbers, so be sure to assess a full range of listening skills. Formats: objective formats like multiple choice questions (MCQs) and true and false (T/F) are foten used because they are reliable and easy to mark and analyze. memory plays a significant role in listening comprehension. Item: listen to the passage and the note areas you want students to understand from the input text. place test items sufficiently far apart in the test. frame each new section with advance organizer to help develop the context and activate student's backround knowledge. Timing: the length of a listening test is generally determined by; the length of the tape or the number of repetitions of the texts. listening texts should not exceed 30 minutes. give to the students time to pre-read the questions. Paraphrase recognition: requires students to listen to a statement and then elect the option closest in meaning to the statement. Objective formats: like MCQs and T/F can be used to assess listening content.
Short answer question; teachers can use short answer questions formats to assess listening, provided that the question is short and straightforward.
Cloze; students listen to a passage while referring to a written transcript of the text in which several words have been deleted.
Dictation; testers classify dictation as an interactive test because it assesses a wide range of skills. to do a dictation with your students, you will need to find a short text of 50-100 words, which you will read three times. Information transfer tasks: require student to transfer information they have heard to chart or visual. common examples are filling in a form or a timetable, labeling a graph, finding something on a map, and following instructions. Note-taking: students are actively involved as they write key information they understand from the input text. the physical characteristics of the test setting or venue can affect the validity and/or reliability of the test. Recording Voiceovers
Anyone recording a segment for a listening test should receive training and practice beforehand. in a large-scale testing, it is advisable to use a mixture of genders, accents, and dialects. scoring
dichotomous scoring (questions that are either right or wrong) is easier and more reliable. when more than one teacher is marking a listening test, calibration or standardization training should be completed to ensure fairness to all students. End