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Chapter 34 - Vertebrates

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on 20 April 2010

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Transcript of Chapter 34 - Vertebrates

Chordates Deuterostome development
Mineralized endoskeleton
True coelom
Bilateral symmetry
Segmentation
Closed circulation Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve chord 2 invertebrates Urochordayes Cephachordates Vertebrates backbone vertebral column Characteristics Notochord Pharyngeal clefts Post-anal tail Flexible rod
Skeletal support Brain and spine Grooves in the pharyngeal slits
Suspension feeding
gas exchange Skeletal elements and muscles Tunicates Larva: notochord, nerve chord, and tail Not present in adult Saclike, sessile animal Water goes enters incurrent siphon goes through pharyngeal slits, which filter food by mucuous net, and then exits leaves the excurrent siphon Lancelets Suspension feeder Burrow in sand Filter food through mucous net on pharyngeal slits Coordinated contractions flex notochord somites (blocked mesoderm) develop into muscle segments Myxini Hagfish Craniate Craniates Head, eyes, sensory organs, and skull enclosing brain Two clusters of Hox genes
Duplication of family genes Neural crest:
embryonic cells along margin of embryonic fold from nerve cord.
Contributions - bone and cartilage of the skull Pharyngeal cleftss evolve into gill slits with muscles and nerves
Food
Water
Gas exchange High metabolism
Extensive muscles
At least 2-chambered heart
Red blood cells
Hemoglobin
Kindeys Cartilaginous skeleton Skull Notochord Lack vertebrae Lack jaw Slime for predators Vertebrates Vertebrates are craniates with backbones
Vertebrae encloses the spinal chord
Dorsal, ventral, and anal fins are supported by fin rays
Neural Crest
Cephalization
Vertebral column
Closed Circulatory System Lampreys Jawless
Suspension feeders (larva)
Parasites (adults) Notochord
Main axis skeleton
Cartilaginous pipe surrounds it Pairs of projections
Partially enclosed nerve cord Conodants Soft bodies vertebrates with eyes and barbed, mineralized hooks in mouth; dental element in pharynx for food Ostracoderms Paired fins
Inner ear with semicircular canal
Lacks jaw
Has muscular pharynx and mineralized bone
Paraphyletic group Gnathostomes Vertebrates with jaws Skeletal rods of pharyngeal
Remaining gills used for gas exchange Duplication of Hox genes
Duplication of gene clusters Enlarged forebrain
Enhanced sense of smell and vision
mineralized endoskeleton
lateral line system: "ears" row of organs sensitive to the vibrations in the water
Pressure sensor Paired fins
Tail
Hinged jaws Agnathans Dental mineralization
Cartilagenous skeleton
Dorsal and caudal fins
Anterior gill slits Cloaca: common opening for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive tract Chrondrichthyands Sharks, rays, etc... Cartilaginous skeleton
Powerful muscle
Paired pectoral and pelvic fin - lift
Maintain buoyancy
Constant movement to keep water over gills
Suspension feeder (plankton)
Keen sense of smell and vision
Skin on their head can detect electric fields Enlarged pectoral fins for movement Reproduction Ovoviviparous: retain fetalized egg until it hatches Oviparous: internalfertilization and egg hatches outside mother Viviparous: nourished by yolk sac placenta Osteichtyes "Bony fish" and tetrapods
Osified endoskeleton with hard calcium phosphate matrix
Swim bladder - controls buoyancy
Lateral line system
Oviparous Ray finned fishes Lobe fins Include coelocanths, lungfishes & tetrapods Tetrapods Gnathostomes with limbs and feet with digits Pelvic girdle fussed to backbone
Pharyngeal cleft - ears, glands...
Lungs (Carboniferous period) Amphibians Oviparious
Vocalization
Migration
Gas exchange - through moist skin or lungs
External fertilization
External development
Egg lacks shell
Two-chambered heart (larva); three-chambered heart (adult) Salamanders lateral bending - locomotion Tadpoles
Aquatic herbivors
Gills
Lateral line system
Finned tail Frogs
Carnivors
Terrestrial
Lungs and legs Caecilians
Burrow
Legless
Almost blind
Wormlike Amniotes Tetrapods with terrestrially adapted eggs Reptiles Mammals Dinosaurs, lizards, snakes, crocodiles, birds... Skin covered with keatinized, waterproof scales
Lungs - gas exchange
Internal fertilization - shelled amniotic eggs
Ectothermic - absorb heat
Endothermic - produce metabolic heat Parareptiles:
Large herbivores, dermal plates on their skin Diapsids:
Holes on each side of skull - lepidosaurs (snakes) and archosaurs (crocodiles) Pterosaurs:
wings; vascularized, muscled membrane Extraembryonic membranes
gas exchange, waste storage, transfer nutrients to embryo
embryo in fluid and sometimes a shell
oviviparous
Waterproof skin
Ribs ventilate the lungs
Herbivors and predators Birds Lay amniotic eggs
Keratine on their feathers
Feathers and layer of fat retain their metabolic heat
Archosaurs, theropods, and Archaeopteryx
Ratites: flightless because they don't have kneeled breastbone and enlarged pectoral muscles
Four chambered heart Mammary glands
Hair
Four-chambered heart
Endothermic
Internal fertilization
Large brains
Teeth Monotremes:
Lay eggs; have hair; produce milk
Platypuses Marsupials:
Complete embryonic development in pouch (marsupium)
Kangaroo Eutherians:
Placental mammals; development takes place in uterus
Humans Primates:
Monkeys and apes; opposable thumbs, big brain, short jaws, eyes forward, flat nails, and social behaviors And That's All Folks!!! Chapter 34 Completed Special thanks to the
Campbell Biology Book
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