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Wendat Presentation 2
Transcript of Wendat Presentation 2
and Mark -The Wendat are a tribe of Aboriginal Peoples who lived in North America before the Europeans came.
-They are Iroquoian Peoples.
-They lived near the great lakes, the Wendat lived near Lake Simcoe, Georgian Bay, and Lake Huron.
-Hence the Europeans called them, the Hurons. The Wendat!
-The Iroquoian peoples may have been similar in language....BUT AN ALLIANCE WAS NECESSARY FOR PEACE!!!!!
-In the Wendat alliance, there were 4 tribes, the Wendat, Tobacco (yep, it was a sacred crop) Neutral, and Erie.
-These tribes were all mainly in Ontario. Iroquoian Peoples Environmental Beliefs -The Wendat had many beliefs about the environment.
-They interacted with the environment a lot; the culture was adapted to the surroundings.
-Their way of life is balanced with nature, and they have much respect for living things.
-They believe that connecting with nature was very important!
The (actual) Environment
(not just beliefs) -The Wendat’s surroundings were.....
-Their environment could provide enough food for a large population.
-They hunted animals in the forest, fished, and hunted waterfowl, they also farmed.
-They had mixed forests of maple, beech, oak, spruce and pine.
-The summers were very hot, and the winters were cold, and snowy.
-They had moderate rain, 500-999 mm a year. Hills with forests... Lakes and Small Rivers... Valleys... And Very Fertile Land! -The Wendat ways of life changed every season.
-They had to know these changes of food and resources to survive.
-In spring, the people prepare to grow crops. Most food for the year was grown in these fields.
-In summer, most people left the village.
-The women, older people and children lived in small bark shelters in the fields. The women weeded crops, gathered herbs and medicines, and made repairs. Seasonal Changes Seasonal C. Contd. -Children and older people chased away birds and small animals to protect the crops.
-The men set up camps in the forest to hunt, fish and trade.
-The women came along to fishing trips to clean, dry, and get oil from the fish.
-The men cleared the forest, and the women gathered firewood.
-In the fall, deer were hunted for hides, meat and fat.
--In the winter, the people made clothing, made and repaired tools, decorated clothing, and they made art! Stories, games, dancing and music. 1) Build a Triangular
Enclosure... 2) Chase Herds of Deer into the Enclosure With the Rest of Your Tribe. 3) Hunters Waiting There Shoot
With Bows and Arrows. How to Hunt a Deer...Wendat Style! TA-DA!!! Homes -Their environment had plentiful resources, and there was enough food for everyone.
-So, they could live in large groups, in semi-permanent villages.
-The people lived in longhouses, which were all the same width, although the lengths varied greatly.
-Villages can have 2-100 longhouses!
-All longhouse building materials came from the environment.
-Since everyone lived close together, getting along was important. So were respect, caring, and sharing! All Wendat villages were enclosed in palisades, which kept snow and wind out. NOT TRUE! Some scholars say that some villages did not have palisades. Well then, palisades were basically solid fences of wood. NUH-UNH! Not all are solid! There might have been openings for people to go through. The Palisade Debate Well then... Planting Agriculture Harvest -A Wendat village is surrounded by fields for planting.
-Eventually, all the nutrients in the soil are used up, meaning less food.
-Then the village moves and uses new fields.
-Farming was done by women, and the group depended on this food to survive. Because of this, women were respected and had equal status with the men. (AW YEA!) -The men cleared the land by burning the base of trees, chopping down the rest, and burning bushes and shrubs.
-The women loosened the soil with digging sticks, then used bone tipped hoes to make holes. After saying a prayer of thanks, the seeds were put in. -In the summer, women would gather strawberries, cherries, mushrooms, onions, pumpkins, seeds, nuts and much more. This they would add to the winter food supply.
-Herbs were collected for medicine and flavoring.
-In the fall, crops were harvested and deer hunted for the winter.
-Corn, beans and squash were the most important crops. Tobacco was also harvested, and maple syrup was made. Hunting and Fishing Storage Fishing -Food and medicine was dried, so it would’t spoil.
-Pottery, boxes and baskets were used to store food.
-Containers could be made from birch bark, woven bulrushes, or willow branches. They also hunted and fished for food. Fishing can be done all year round. During spawning season,
weirs or nets were used
to catch fish. A fish hook
and line and a spear was also used. While men fished, women
preserved the excess fish. They would hang them
on wooden racks to dry. Hunting They hunted deer. They were often hunted
in group hunts. Foodstuffs Cornmeal Mortars and pestles were use to grind roasted or dried corn into cornmeal. Corn can also be grinded between 2 rocks. It was always done by women. Once the cornmeal was separated from the coarse outer parts, water was added to make bread. Bread Water was added to the cornmeal to make bread. It was baked by wrapping it in corn leaves and putting it under hot coals. In early autumn and winter, wild nuts and berries were added for flavour. Corn Soup Each family had a pot of corn soup. Sometimes deer meat, fish or squash was added to the soup. Other Foods Meat and fish were sometimes roasted. Food was also wrapped in leaves and placed in ashes to cook. When men were trading or hunting, they often ate a trail mixture. Cornmeal, pounded together with deer fat and maple sugar made a nutritious product. They ate when they're hungry. There were no set mealtimes. Clothing All clothing came from nature. A Wendat Village! Deerskin was commonly used. This is the typical Wendat Village would have. It was soft and durable. It was tanned and cleaned by women. 1) The Entrance The entrance would be narrow and winding, so that bears, wolves, and unwelcomed people couldn’t come in. They were tied together with sinew
or laced with leather. 2) Longhouses The people lived in longhouses. About 30 people lived in each longhouse, female family members, husbands, and children. What they wore In warm weather they wore as little as possible. (somewhat naked) In cooler weather men wore 2 pieces of leather suspended at the hip by a thong. Women wore one piece dresses or "jackets". In the coolest weather they wore fur robes. Transportation The natives had many forms of transportation- Winter They used tumplines in winter. They were a leather strap
was placed on their head
and connected to a backpack. Snowshoes were used to travel. They were wood frames
with rawhide webbing. Summer They used lightweight
canoes in the summer. They were made from birch
bark or hollowed out logs. How to make a canoe
Like the Wendat 1 Cut wood for rib. 2 Soak in hot water. Caution! HOT! 4 Sew on birch bark. 5 Seal with hot pine or spruce pitch, which is sap. 3 Bend to shape. Trade They traded even before
the Europeans. 3) Tool Site Here, the people made axes, gouges and chisels. 4) Bone Pit Unused animal bones were protected in this pit. This is respect to the spirits, and maintains balance between the human, nature, and spirit worlds. This also promises good hunts in the future. 5) Sweat Lodge A sacred place of communal prayer used during religious ceremonies and curing rites. Heated stones were rolled in, and the Wendat would sing and pray to the spirits. Afterward, water would be poured on the stones, creating steam that cleanses the soul and body. 6) Fish Racks Much meat and fish would be dried and smoked over open fires here. Fish was eaten daily, meat was for special ceremonies and feasts. 7) Corn Grinding 60% of the Wendat diet is corn. It was dried in the fall and then stored in the longhouse. Here, corn would be ground into flour to use for soups and breads. The Wendat would trade excess
corn for goods like game, fur,
tobacco, etc... Then they would trade the
goods they received for other goods. 8)Burial Rack Clans Several families with a common ancestor
are called clans. Each clan lived in a longhouse. The deceased are placed here for 4 months, then buried in the village cemetery. Before moving the village every 10-15 years, all the dead are buried in a large communal pit, during the feast of the dead. Most descended from one woman, she is called the clan mother. Most children are on the mother’s side. Spirituality They believed in harmony
with nature. 9)Healer's Lodge Spirituality often had to do with physical needs. Certain ceremonies were conducted
for example, before and after a hunt. The healer’s powers are revealed through dreams, visions, and contact with the spirit world. The 4 kinds of healers are
-finding lost things
-treating and curing diseases Spiritual practices were also connected to farming. 10) Storage Pits Symbols Many symbols came from nature Pits, corn, nuts and dried meats are stored underground in bark containers here. The were considered sacred. Healing 11)Cutting Fire Here, fire is used to cut things because there was no steel or metal. Controlled fires could remove large trees, and can cut fallen trees into small poles. The Wendat had many very skilled healers who knew how to use and find healing herbs, conduct ceremonies and heal people. They cured illnesses of the mind, body and spirit and often wore sacred masks. Dreams and Visions Dreams and visions are important. They often discussed their dreams to others. Physical and psychological
parts of humans were thought
to be connected. At puberty a boy would go to the forest and fast.
When weakened by hunger and thirst, a guardian spirit will appear in his visions.
The spirit will protect him for life and give advice. They often appeared as animals, an old man, etc... They would, as mentioned before, trap the deer in an enclosure and shoot them with arrows. Stories were used to pass history, spiritual beliefs, values and traditions. Tt took place in the longhouse while people worked quietly or just sat down to listen. They were creation stories, other worlds, etc... Decision Making Women would bring concerns
to the clan mother who guided
the chief of the clan. Men also met to discuss
concerns with the chief. Each clan had a chief. Each issue was discussed in
great length until everyone
agreed on something. Meetings They held meetings to solve problems.
Decisions were made by a council of chiefs.
There are civil, hunting and war chiefs.
Civil chiefs were concerned with everyday life and the people. they also maintained law and order and co-ordinate feasts, games, and dances.
The clan mother chose a civil chief for his wisdom and diplomacy.
The civil chief received advice from the clan mother.
The civil chief can be replaced if the clan mother was not pleased.
Hunting chiefs led hunting expeditions.
War chiefs were concerned with military matters. The political part of culture includes security.
Physical bravery was valued.
This include ability to withstand pain and to hunt, travel, and fight with little food or physical protection.
People lived in villages with large populations.
They were supported by farming done mainly by women.
Men had lots of time to train to become warriors and hunters to take part in raids and war parties.
There are 2 alliances in the Iroquois the 5 nations confederacy and the wendat alliance.
Alliances brought peace among the nations in the alliance.
This reduced the amount of conflicts.
That means there are more men for hunting and trading.
They are not needed for defense or attack.
Fewer lives are lost, crops burned, and villages destroyed.
That put their life at risk.
Not all nations made alliances.
Conflict over hunting and traded also arose from time to time Defense,
War,Peace Wampum They are strings of shell beads.
They were a trade item.
The shells from people in the Atlantic Shore.
There are white and purple beads.
White ones are more common.
Purple ones are worth more.
They were used to make belts. (the belt used to hold up your pants)
They were also used as symbols and memory devices.
They were record keepers. Belts 12) Pottery Making Containers are made from clay and quartz sand. They fired and then baked the clay to bind with the quartz, which gave the potter strength and durability. 13) Corn Fields Corn beans and squash are planted here, surrounding the village. Sunflowers as well, they were used for food and oil. 14) Lookout Tower The villagers can watch over surroundings. During war, the platforms can be used for defense. 15)Drying Rack The meat and pelt from animals (bears, beavers, deer, wolves) are smoked (meat) and stretched on racks to dry (pelts). Hair from the hides is removed with a wood and ash mixture and tanned. Tanning makes the leather soft, and can be done using the animals brain! >.< YEEEECH! 16)Pole Stacks Lots of stacks of upright poles. They were emergency building supplies, and they were for repairing damaged longhouses. 17) Canoes There was a spot for canoes! Canoes were a speedy method of travel. The End! We hoped you enjoyed this presentation. Please retain the information... Because THERE WILL BE A TEST! But for now....WE HAVE A SURPRISE!! IT'S TIME FOR BANNOCK!!!! . Stories Wendat Technology -Technology is turning raw materials into useful items.
-The Wendat tanned hides to make them stronger and more flexible.
-The women used scrapers and fleshers, and the men used bows and arrows.
-They made tools, weapons, containers and more.
-They also traded for items to make tools, such as hard stones.
-Some other things they made are pottery, birchbark baskets, as well as stone, wood,and bone tools. .