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CHEMICAL REACTIONS.

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Hermanos Angulo

on 31 May 2016

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Transcript of CHEMICAL REACTIONS.

Index.
2. Development.
Conclusion.
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In this investigation work, we have learned that there are chemical reactions everywhere and all times, for example, the washer machine cleans the clothes by a chemical reaction but there are lots of examples in everyday life, so we need chemical reactions.
1. Introduction.
2. Development.
2.1. Parts of chemical reactions.
2.2. Factors of chemical reactions.
2.3. Types of chemical reactions.
2.4. Radioactive process.
2.5. Solutions.
3. Conclusion.
4. Practice experience.
5. Bibliography.
Bibliography.
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* 4º ESO book Santillana Physic and Chemist
* .wikipedia.org
* .quimicaweb.net/grupo.trabajo_fyq3/index6.hatm
* .arrischool.edu.sv
* educativa.caredu.es

1. Introduction.
A chemical reaction is a physical change that transforms one set of chemical reaction into another.
Some people think that the word chemistry comes from the Egyptian word "keme". However, other think that the origin of chemistry comes from the Greek word "khemeíd", which means mixture of liquids.
By:
Practice experience.
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CHEMICAL REACTIONS.
We are going to do five experiments. Each component of the group is going to explain one experiment.

2.1. Parts of
chemical reactions.
There are two parts in chemical reactions:
* Reactants: Substances that are transformed.
* Products: Substances that are produced by reactants.


Reactants Products.
2.2. Factors of chemical reactions.
There are three factors in chemical reactions: the collision theory, endothermic and exothermic reactions and factors that affect in the rate
of a reaction.
The collision theory.
It concentrates on the key
thing which decides whether a particular collision will result in a reaction, particularly, the energy of the collision and when molecules hit each other in the right way around the orientation of the collision.
Endothermic and exothermic reactions.
An exothermic reaction occurs when the temperature increases due to the evolution of heat.
An endothermic reaction occurs when the temperature of an isolated system decreases while the surrounding of a non-isolated system gains heat.
Factors that affect in the rate of a reaction.
*If we increase temperature, the energy of the reactants will be increased.
*If we increase concentration of the reactants, it will be easier to produce the contact of particles.
*If particles are smaller, it will be easier
to produce the contact of other
reactants.
Sometimes, it's better to slow down
a reaction. For example, to preserve food, to the oxidation of metals... In this cases, we reduce temperature with the help of the fridge in the case of foods.
2.3. Types of chemical reactions.
Chemical reactions can be classified in different ways, one of this way is this one.
Acid-base.
Acids are substances with tart taste which react with metals, creating hydrogen.
The bases are substances with bleach flavour and they can neutralize acids.
Acids substances reacts with bases substances, calling them acid-base.
The intensity of them is measured br the pH scale.
The pH scale.
In this scale, the lowest number, 1, corresponds to the strongest acid, and the highest number, 14, corresponds to the
strongest bases.
Oxidation.
Oxidation is a chemical reaction that involves two process: oxidation and reduction.
*Oxidation is the process where the object loses electrons and its levels of oxidation increases.
*Reduction is the process where the object win electrons and its levels of oxidation decreases.
Combustion.
Combustions are chemical reactions where a substance, called fuel, reacts with an other, called oxider, creating a very big amount of energy.
The majority of times, the fuel is an organic compound, like petrol, wool...
The oxider will be oxygen and the product is, for example, the carbon dioxide.
Combustion causes the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere so, in conclusion, they are the responsibles of green house effect.
Experiments
Burner of alcohol.
Elastic egg.
The destroyer coca-cola.
The volcano.
Vinegar and chalk.
For the elastic egg we'll need.
*An egg.
*Vinegar.
*A covered container.

Put the egg into the container, fill it with vinegar and cover it. You must wait three days and we can see that the egg's shell has dissappeared. Vinegar has reacted with the egg's shell and it has dissolved with a reaction called osmosis.

A dissolution is an homogenous mix of two or more substances which they don't react between other. For example salt or sugar dissolved in the water. Dissolutions have two parts.

2.5. Dissolutions.
Solute.
It's the component which is located in a different physical state in the disoolution.
Dissolvent.
It's the substance which in the same physical state in the dissolution.
Video.
Both can be
gases, liquid
or solid matter.
Video.
2.4. Radioactivity.
To perform this experiment, we will need:
*A small volcano with a hole in the top.
*Vinegar.
*Bicarbonate.

We put the vinegar into the volcano and then, the bicarbonate.
We can see how the mix of vinegar and carbonate produce a chemical reaction, rising of the volcano until leave the hole.
To solve this experiment, we'll need:
*A coca-cola.
*A container.
*An egg.

Our bones are made of calcium like the skin of the egg.
We have put the egg into the container and we've bathed the egg with coca-cola and one day later, we have seen that the skin of the egg is very dilapidated (dirty, open crack , and thinner than yesterday).
In conclusion, if coca-cola damages the egg, it
damages our bones, too.
An other property of this soft drink is that it pull out
pipes.

The energy propagating in waveform through space is called radiation.
Radioactivity is a physical phenomenon where the nucleus of some chemical elements, called radioactives, emit radiation.
Radioactivity was discovered by the French science Henry Becquerel, while working with phosphorescent materials.

These radiations have the property to pass though opaque to ordinary light and makes X-rays photos, ionize gas fluorescent, among other things.
This experiment has been...

...filmed by: Jaime.
...narrated by: Marcos.
...carried by: María.
...directed by: Ana.
This experiment has been...
Filmed by: Jaime.
Narrated by: Antonio.
Carried out by: María.
Directed by: Ana.
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