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AP EURO 2000 ESSAY OUTLINE
Transcript of AP EURO 2000 ESSAY OUTLINE
Conclusion Before the Scientific Revolution, Aristotle's physics and laws were all thought to be true. Aristotle used his own reason to deduce truths about the universe, but they were never tested and believed to be true for thousands of years. That all changed when scientists of the seventeenth century started using math and observations to prove truths. Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler INTRODUCTION The development of the scientific methods and advancement of scientific thinking played a role on how the world changed during this time period.Before the development of the scientific method the uneducated believed everything they were told.The church had power over everything in what they say or do.This was the frame of mind until a few scientists began to question their world.With the help of the scientific method they were able to find out things for themselves,most times contradicting or influencing the traditional sources of authority. Galileo Galilei Isaac Newton Francis Bacon Change in Scientific Method Copernicus Impact on Traditional Authority With scientists discovering for themselves things that went against the Church's teachings, the Church lost power to the new era of mechanical and scientific thinking. With the new branch of political philosophy, the power and role of the monarch started to shift. Scientific Method Impact on Authority Used math, empirical data, observation to prove heliocentric theory.
First astronomer to use at least part of scientific method Church believed in literal translation of the Bible. Supported geocentric model
Challenged Church's ideas Scientific Method Believed in geocentric model.
Created new instruments to gather empirical data
Used observations and empirical data, part of the scientific method, to make conclusions that the heavens were not immovable
Data used later by Kepler Supporter of Copernicus and heliocentric model.
Showed mathematical relationship between orbits, demonstrated the mathematical order of the universe. Scientific Method Impact on Authority Used Brahe's empirical data and mathematics, but applied to a heliocentric universe.
Used his calculations to change the heliocentric model and derived new conclusions using parts of the scientific method. Scientific Method Impact on Authority Scientific Method Impact on Authority Scientific Method Thomas Hobbes Rene Descartes Scientific Method Impact on Authority John Locke Impact on Authority articulated universe governed by mathematical laws
Universe was cold and rational.
Quantities replaced qualities. Mathematical arguments irrefutable, physical observation was contraversial Relied on patronage from Duke of Tuscany, presented new bodies to his patron.
Published his own ideas of how scripture and science could be accommadated.
Made fun of Pope's views and advocated the banned Copernicanism, resulting in punishment by the church Empiricism- knowledge comes from observing and making conclusions based on the observations
Rejected view that all knowledge was already discovered. Urged natural philosophers to make conclusions based on observations to benefit humanity.
Inductive reasoning- half of the scientific method. Make observation, then conclusions. Idea shared by Newton. New observations from astronomy and explorers supported this type of reasoning. Doubted everything except his own existence and propositions that he could have clear and distinct ideas
Emphasized deduction based on rational speculation and internal reflection by the mind.
Believed in deductive scientific method. Start with reason rather than observations to prove a hypothesis and come up with a conclusion. Influenced by turmoil of English Civil war.
Sought to provide philosophical justification for strong central political authority
Portrayed people as mechanical, only interested in daily needs and self preservation. Needed strong government to allow humans to reach higher moral purpose.
Every person is bound by a social contract with their ruler to sacrifice their personal rights for peace and self-defense.
Absolute ruler, whether monarch or parliament, must use force to enforce the contract. Opponent of absolutism. Family fought against Charles I and supported the Puritans
Believed humans naturally possessed reason and goodwill, not selfishness.
Government's job is to protect rights of life, liberty, and property that all people already have.
If an absolute ruler betrays the people, they have the right to overthrow him.
Government not supposed to enforce religion. Supported religious toleration.
All people born with a blank slate mind that's influenced by experience. Rejected Church's original sin and Roman Catholicism. Discovered gravity
Advocate of Bacon's empiricism, despised Descartes's rationalism.
Used math, empirical data, to prove his hypotheses and explain observations. Discovered mathematical relationship between heavenly bodies due to gravity
Challenged Ptolomaic, Aristolean, church ideas about movement of planets.
Believed in mathematical universe.