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Musclular System

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Greg Horesovsky

on 31 July 2014

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Transcript of Musclular System

Nerves
Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, controlled by nerves of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
Blood Vessels
Muscles have extensive vascular systems that:
Supply large amounts of oxygen and nutrients
Carry away wastes
Blood Vessels and Nerves
Muscle Tissue
A primary tissue type, divided into
Skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle
An Introduction to Muscle Tissue
Muscle Hypertrophy
Muscle growth from heavy training:
Increases diameter of muscle fibers
Increases number of myofibrils
Increases mitochondria, glycogen reserves
Muscle Atrophy
Lack of muscle activity:
Reduces muscle size, tone, and power
Physical Conditioning
The Distribution of Muscle Fibers and Muscle Performance
White muscle:
Mostly fast fibers
Pale (e.g., chicken breast)
Red muscle:
Mostly slow fibers
Dark (e.g., chicken legs)
Most human muscles:
Mixed fibers
Pink
Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Fast fibers
Contract very quickly
Have large diameter, large glycogen reserves, few mitochondria
Have strong contractions, fatigue quickly
Slow fibers
Are slow to contract, slow to fatigue
Have small diameter, more mitochondria
Have high oxygen supply
Contain myoglobin (red pigment, binds oxygen)
Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
When muscles can no longer perform a required activity, they are fatigued
Results of Muscle Fatigue
Depletion of metabolic reserves
Low pH (lactic acid)
Muscle exhaustion and pain
Muscle Fatigue
Muscle Metabolism
Muscle Metabolism
Muscle Metabolism
Skeletal muscles at rest metabolize fatty acids and store glycogen

During moderate activity, muscles generate ATP through
aerobic
breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, or amino acids

At peak activity, energy is provided by
anaerobic
reactions that generate lactic acid as a by-product
Build-up of lactic acid causes muscle pain
Energy Use and the Level of Muscle Activity
Cells produce ATP in two ways
Aerobic metabolism of fatty acids in the mitochondria
Anaerobic glycolysis in the cytoplasm

Aerobic metabolism
Is the primary energy source of resting muscles and during moderate activity
Breaks down fatty acids
Produces 36 ATP molecules per glucose molecule

Anaerobic glycolysis
Is the primary energy source for peak muscular activity
Produces two ATP molecules per molecule of glucose
Breaks down glucose from glycogen stored in skeletal muscles
ATP Generation
Sustained muscle contraction uses a lot of ATP energy
Muscles store enough energy to start contraction
Muscle fibers must manufacture more ATP as needed
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
The active energy molecule
Creatine phosphate (CP)
The storage molecule for excess ATP energy in resting muscle
Energy recharges ADP to ATP
Using the enzyme creatine phosphokinase (CPK or CK)
When CP is used up, other mechanisms generate ATP
ATP and Muscle Contraction







Figure 7-1
The Organization of a Skeletal Muscle
Muscles have three layers of connective tissues
Epimysium:
Separates muscle from surrounding tissues
Perimysium:
Surrounds muscle fiber bundles (fascicles)
Endomysium:
Surrounds individual muscle cells (muscle fibers)
Muscle attachments
Endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium come together:
To form a tendon (bundle) or aponeurosis (sheet)
Organization of Connective Tissues
Muscle tissue (muscle cells or fibers)
Connective tissues
Blood vessels and nerves
Skeletal Muscle Structures
Skeletal Muscles
Are attached to the skeletal system
Allow us to move
The muscular system
Includes only skeletal muscles
An Introduction to Muscle Tissue
The time required after exertion for muscles to return to normal
Oxygen becomes available
Mitochondrial activity resumes
Lactic Acid Recycling
Converts lactic acid to pyruvic acid
Glucose is released to recharge muscle glycogen reserves
Oxygen debt:
After exercise or other exertion:
The body needs more oxygen than usual to normalize metabolic activities
Heat Loss
Active muscles produce heat
Up to 70% of muscle energy can be lost as heat, raising body temperature
Blood vessels in the skin dilate to release the body heat
The Recovery Period
Muscle Physiology!
Muscle
Anatomy!

Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
The Achilles tendon:
The calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon):
Shared by the gastrocnemius and soleus
Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
The Axial Muscles
Divisions based on location and function:
Muscles of head and neck
Muscles of spine (vertebral column)
Muscles of the trunk
Oblique and rectus muscles
Muscles of pelvic floor
Axial Musculature
Descriptive Names for Skeletal Muscles
Location in the body
Origin and insertion
Relative position
Structural characteristics
Action
Names of Skeletal Muscles
Four Muscles That Produce Extension (plantar flexion) at the Ankle
Gastrocnemius
Soleus
Fibularis (group)
Tibialis posterior
Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
Muscles That Move the Leg
Flexors of the knee:
Originate on the pelvic girdle
Extensors of the knee:
Originate on the femoral surface
Insert on the patella
Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
Muscles That Move the Thigh
Muscles That Move the Thigh
Muscles That Move the Thigh
Gluteal muscles
Lateral rotators
Adductors
Iliopsoas
Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
Muscles That Position the Lower Limbs
Muscles that move the thigh
Muscles that move the leg
Muscles that move the foot and toes
Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
Pelvic girdle is tightly bound to axial skeleton
Permits little movement
Has few muscles
Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
Muscles That Move the Forearm and Wrist
Muscles That Move the Forearm and Wrist
Flexors of the elbow:
Biceps brachii:
flexes elbow
stabilizes shoulder joint
originates on scapula
inserts on radial tuberosity
Brachialis and brachioradialis:
flex elbow
Muscles of the Shoulders and Upper Limbs
Muscles That Move the Forearm and Wrist
Extensors:
Mainly on posterior and lateral surfaces of arm
Flexors:
Mainly on anterior and medial surfaces
Muscles of the Shoulders and Upper Limbs
Muscles That Move the Forearm and Wrist
Originate on humerus and insert on forearm
Exceptions:
The major flexor (biceps brachii)
The major extensor (triceps brachii)
Muscles of the Shoulders and Upper Limbs
Muscles That Move the Arm
Muscles That Move the Arm
Pectoralis major
Between anterior chest and greater tubercle of humerus
Produces flexion at shoulder joint

Latissimus dorsi
Between thoracic vertebrae and humerus
Produces extension at shoulder joint
Muscles of the Shoulders and Upper Limbs
Position the pectoral girdle
Move the arm
Move the forearm and wrist
Move the hand and fingers
Muscles of the Shoulders and Upper Limbs
Position and stabilize pectoral and pelvic girdles
Move upper and lower limbs
Divisions of Appendicular Muscles
Muscles of the shoulders and upper limbs
Muscles of the pelvis and lower limbs
Appendicular Musculature
Functions of pelvic floor muscles
Support organs of pelvic cavity
Flex sacrum and coccyx
Control movement of materials through urethra and anus
Muscles of the Pelvic Floor
Oblique and Rectus Muscles and the Diaphragm
Oblique and Rectus Muscles
Lie within the body wall
Oblique muscles:
Compress underlying structures
Rotate vertebral column

Rectus muscles:
Rectus means “straight”
Flex vertebral column
Oppose erector spinae
The Axial Muscles of the Trunk
Muscles of Head and Neck
Divisions of the Muscular System
Axial muscles:
Position head and spinal column
Move rib cage
60% of skeletal muscles
Appendicular muscles:
Support pectoral and pelvic girdles
Support limbs
40% of skeletal muscles
Muscular System Overview
Primary Action Categories
Prime mover (agonist):
Main muscle in an action

Synergist:
Helper muscle in an action

Antagonist:
Opposed muscle to an action
Origins, Insertions, and Actions
Origin
Muscle attachment that remains fixed
Insertion
Muscle attachment to the part that moves
Action
What joint movement a muscle produces
Origins, Insertions, and Actions
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
Muscles That Move the Thigh: Iliopsoas
Two hip flexors insert on the same tendon:
Psoas major
Iliacus
Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs
Muscles That Move the Forearm and Wrist
Muscles That Move the Arm
Muscles that Move the Shoulder
Muscles that Move the Shoulder







Figure 7-16b
Muscles of the Pelvic Floor
Muscles of the Pelvic Floor
Spinal extensors or erector spinae muscles
Work to keep the spine erect and straight
Muscles of the Spine
Muscles of Head and Neck
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
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