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Persia Attacks the Greeks
Transcript of Persia Attacks the Greeks
Examine rights, privileges, and responsibilities citizens and non-citizens had in civilizations based upon
gender, socio-economic class, ethnicity, religion, or caste
Describe influences of the Persian, Peloponnesian, and Punic Wars on ancient civilization
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.5 Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
5. Individuals, Groups, and Institution
6. Power, Authority, and Governance Vocabulary for the Day Satrapies- provinces in an empire that have been divided into different parts
Satrap-protector of the kingdom; acts as a tax collector, judge, chief of police, and head recruiter for the Persian army
Zoroastrianism- Persian religion The Rise of the Persian Empire Persian Wars Greeks set up colonies in the Mediterranean area; often clashed with Persians
Mid-500s B.C. Persia controlled the Greek cities in Asia Minor
Greeks helped Asia Minor in rebel but it failed
Darius decided that the mainland Greeks had to be stopped The people of Persia lived in what is today southwestern Iran
Cyrus the Great- managed to unite the Persians into a powerful kingdom
-ruled from 559 B.C. to 530 B.C. Persia began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world... Bell Ringer:
How would you deal with the threat of someone coming into your room without your permission? Ticket to Leave:
List two things you learned and one question you have about the lesson. Cyrus's army captures Babylon in 539 B.C., northern Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, and the Phoenician cities
All subjects were treated well
Captive Jews in Babylon allowed to return home
Merciful helped hold growing empire together
More territory was added; Egypt, western India, and Thrace (a region northeast from Greece The Persian Empire was about the size of the continental United States today. To connect their vast holdings the Persians built miles of roads. Persian Government Darius came to the throne in 521 B.C.; Reorganized government
Darius divided the empire into 20 provinces called satrapies.
Each was ruled by an official with the title of satrap
Large army of professional soldiers; 10,000 soldiers to guard the king- Immortals The Persian Religion Persian religion- Zoroastrianism
Zoroaster, founder; Born in 660 B.C.
Began preaching after seeing visions as a young man
Believed in one god (monotheism); creator of all things and force of goodness
Humans choose between right and wrong
Practiced for centuries and still practiced by a small number today Battle of Marathon Persian fleet landed 20,000 soldiers
Landed at the plain of Marathon (short distance form Athens)
The Persians waited for several days
Persians- 20,000 soldiers
Athenians- 10,000 soldiers
Persians decided to board ships, sail south and attack Athens directly
Boarded the horseman
Greeks charged w/ the strongest part of the cavalry out of range
Legend- Pheidippides 490 B.C. Another Persian Strike Xerxes becomes king in 486 B.C.
Revenge against Athens
Sparta and Athens joins forces
King Leonidas (Sparta) served as commander of the Greek forces
Themistocles came up with a plan to fight the Persians
Attack Persian ships and cut off food supplies The Greeks stalled the Persian army by blocking them at Thermopylae (a narrow pass through the mountains that was easy to defend)
Held them off for two days
King Leonidas and other soldiers fought to the death
Battle of Thermopylae- Greeks were defeated Athens assembled 200 ships
Greek fleet attacked Persian fleet in the strait of Salamis
Greek ships able to maneuver through the narrow strip of water (strait)
Greeks destroyed almost entire Persian fleet
Persian army marched on and burned Athens; but the Greeks had already fled Early 479 B.C. the Greek city-states came together to form the largest Greek army ever
Solid body armor, longer spears, and better training
The Greeks crushed the Persian army at Plataea (northwest of Athens)
Battle turning point for the Greeks
Persians retreated to Asia Minor The Persian Empire Falls The Persian were weakened after the Greek defeat
Persia remained intact for almost 150 more years
Kings following Darius and Xerxes raised taxes to gain wealth
A young Greek conqueror, Alexander, invaded Persia in 334 B.C.
The Persians were no match for Alexander's troops