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Medical & Industrial Applications of Radioisotopes

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Sally Woods

on 15 July 2015

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Transcript of Medical & Industrial Applications of Radioisotopes

Introduction
Identify data sources and gather, process and analyse information to describe the use of:
A named isotope in medicine
A named isotope in agriculture
A named isotope in engineering
Agriculture
PHOSPHORUS 32
Medicine
On average, every Australian can expect at some stage in his or her life to undergo a nuclear medicine procedure that uses a radioisotope for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes (ANSTO unknown author, 2015
TECHNETIUM 99m IN MEDICINE
Engineering
industrial applications of radioisotopes rely on the penetrative or ionising power of the radioisotope to trace the movement or thickness of the desired material (ANSTO, 2015)
Medical, agricultural and engineering Applications of Radioisotopes
Sally Woods
Year 12 Physics

SMOKE DETECTORS
A radioisotope is a radioactive isotope and has an unstable nucleus and emits radiation during its decay to a stable form (ANSTO, 2015)
Radioisotopes have important uses in medical diagnosis, industry, and scientific research. (Neville Warren, 2012)
TECHNETIUM 99m
its an isomer of technetium 99
has a 6hour half life = enough time for use
it emits gamma rays = great for medical use as low danger to patient
its placed in a serum and injected into patient = allows for gamma camera scans to provide accurate pictures of patients body
most commonly used radioisotope in medical imaging
(Neville Warren, 2012)
Hospitals are sent Tc-99m generators
these consist of Molybdenum-99
which then decays to Tc-99m (R. Nave, 2014)



this is then injected into the body (Robert Emery, 2015)
its used to scan for brain, kidney, lung, bone, liver or spleen cancer
Tc-99m then decays to Tc-99 emitting gamma rays which is recorded using camera (Charles Sturt University, 2015)

radioisotope of phosphorus
decays rapidly with a half life of 14 days
mainly used as a tracer in biochemistry
(World Nuclear Association scientist's, 2014
PHOSPHORUS 32 IN AGRICULTURE
Monitors the way various agricultural chemicals move into crops and into ground water (Neville Warren, 2012)
E.g. by injecting a solution of phosphate-based fertilizer containing phosphorus32 into the root system of the plant, scientists can investigate how plants use phosphorus to grow and reproduce (Robert Emery, 2015)
This optimises the production and use of fertiliser and weedkiller and saves money
Phosphorus-32 is injected into the root system of the plant
A Geiger counter is then used to detect the movement of the radioactive Phosphorus-32 throughout the plant
this helps scientists to understand how plants utilised this radioisotope to grow and reproduce. (Prof. John Simon, 2012)
The element americium was discovered in 1945 by bombarding plutonium with neutrons in a nuclear reactor (ANSTO, 2015)

Americium-241 has a half life of 432 years
its a component of industrial and household smoke detectors (ANSTO, 2015)
plutonium-241 (half life of 14years) decays to americium-241 through beta decay (ANSTO, 2015)
AMERICIUM-241
Americium-241 emits alpha particles and low energy gamma rays
particles collide with oxygen and nitrogen in detectors' ionization chamber
this produces ions
a low electric voltage is applied across chamber
this attracts ions to oppositely charged electrodes causing a small current (World nuclear association, unknown, 2015)
when smoke enters, the smoke particles attach to ions which neutralize them
this causes ions present and current to fall which sets off alarm (BBC authors, 2014)
pictures - (BBC author unknown, 2014)
(World Nuclear Association scientists, 2015)
(Prof. John Simon, 2012)
(Wikipedia unknown author, 2015)
Bibliography
Textbooks and papers
Cruising Chemistry, Agricultural application-radioactive tracers, Prof. John Simon, 2012, http://people.chem.duke.edu/~jds/cruise_chem/nuclear/agriculture.html

BBC, GCSE Bitesize, Uses of Radioisotopes: Smoke Detectors, unknown author, 2014, http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr_gateway/radiation/radioisotopesrev3.shtml

ANSTO, Radioisotopes: their role in society today, unknown author (scientists from ANSTO), 2015, http://www.ansto.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/3564/Radioisotopes.pdf

Senior Physics and Religion, From Quanta to Quarks: applications of radioisotopes, Robert Emery, http://webs.mn.catholic.edu.au/physics/emery/hsc_quanta_continued.htm#radio

World Nuclear Association, Smoke Detectors and Americium OR Radioisotopes in Medicine, unknown authors (many scientists), 2015, http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Non-Power-Nuclear-Applications/Radioisotopes/Smoke-Detectors-and-Americium/ http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Non-Power-Nuclear-Applications/Radioisotopes/Radioisotopes-in-Medicine/

Wikipedia, the Free encyclopedia, Isotopes of Americium, unknown author, February 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_americium

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Radiation Protection, Americium, unknown authors, 2015, http://www.epa.gov/radiation/radionuclides/americium.html#use

NSW HSC online, Physics: From Quanta to Quarks, Charles Sturt University, 2015, http://hsc.csu.edu.au/physics/options/quanta_quarks/3007/phy984.html#a7
Excel HSC, Physics, Neville Warren, 2012, Pascal Press, Sydney Australia

Jacaranda HSC Science, Physics 2, HSC course, Michael Andriessen, Peter Pentland, Richard Gaut, Bruce McKay, Jill Tacon, 2008, John Wiley and Sons, QLD Australia
Internet Articles
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