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Solutions Chemistry Presentations

By: Ana Macias and Jillian Nunez
by

Jillian Nunez

on 10 March 2014

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Transcript of Solutions Chemistry Presentations

By Jillian Nunez and Ana Macias
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Aqueous Systems
15.2 Homogeneous Aqueous Systems
Key Concepts:
A
suspension
differs from a solution because the component particles of a suspension are much larger and do not stay suspended indefinitely.

Colloids
have particles smaller than those in suspensions and larger than those in solutions.
15.3 Heterogeneous Aqueous Systems
Vocabulary:
Suspension
- A mixture from which some of the particles settle out slowly upon standing.

Colloid
- A mixture whose particles are intermediate in size between those of a suspension and a solution.

Tyndall effect
- Scattering of light by particles in a colloid or suspension, which causes a beam of light to become visible.

Brownian motion
- The chaotic movement of colloidal particles, caused by collision with particles of the solvent in which they are dispersed.

Emulsion
- The colloidal dispersion of one liquid in another.


A
hydrate
is a compound that contains water of hydration.
Hydrates
Formula:
Percent H2O = Mass of Water/Mass of Hydrate X 100%
Finding the Percent of Water in a Hydrate
Electrolytes
are compounds that conduct an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molten state.

Nonelectrolytes
are compounds that do not conduct an electric current in either aqueous solution or the molten state.

Strong electrolytes
are solutions in which large portions of solute exists as ions.

Weak electrolytes
are solutions that conduct poor electricity because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions.
Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes
Note: All ionic compounds are electrolytes because they dissociate into ions
.
The Real Deal
What is an aqueous solution?
An
aqueous solution
is water that contains dissolved minerals and gases.
A solution contains
solvents
and
solutes
; solvents are the dissolving mediums and solutes are the completely dissolved particles.
What's the difference between the two?
A solvent dissolves the solute and a solute becomes dispersed in the solvent.
The Solution Process
As individual solute ions break away from the crystal, the negatively and positively charged ions become surrounded by solvent molecules and the ionic crystal dissolves.
What happens in the solution process?
But What's
Solvation
?
It is the process by which the positive and negative ions of an ionic solid become surrounded by solvent molecules.
Efflorescent Hydrates
The forces holding the water molecules in hydrates are not very strong, so the water is easily lost and regained. Because the water molecules are held by weak forces, hydrates often have an appreciable vapor pressure. If a hydrate has a vapor pressure higher than the pressure of water vapor in the air, the hydrate will lose its water of hydration or effloresce.

Hygroscopic Hydrates
Hydrated salts that have a low vapor pressure remove water from moist air to form higher hydrates. These hydrates and other compounds that remove moisture from air called hygroscopic.
A career involved in Homogeneous Aqueous Systems is the Waste water Engineer.
A waste water engineer is responsible for monitoring the process of physically and chemically treating waste water before it is returned to the environment or recycled for human use. These engineers control the amount of water treated,the level of treatment, and the quality of water produced. They take part in the process of filtering water from solids and debris. A waste water engineer usually own a degree in engineering; taking courses in water toxicology, organic chemistry and environmental biology.
Chapter Section Concept:
Heterogeneous Aqueous Systems have important implications for groundwater and soil treatment processes.

Groundwater remediation is the process that is used to remove pollution from groundwater.
Full transcript