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Collections 1 and 2

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by

Emily Hoffman

on 28 August 2014

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Transcript of Collections 1 and 2

Plot
Conflict
External Conflict
Internal Conflict
Exposition
Complications
Climax
Resolution/Denouement
Chronological Order
Flashback
Flash-forward
Foreshadowing
Prediction
Elements of Literature
It's all about timing!
Chronological Order
- the order in which events unfold in real time; the writer tells about each event in the order in which it happens

Flashback
- A scene that interrupts the present action of the plot to flash back in time; gives the readers some background information that helps them make sense of a story

Flash-forward
- A scene that interrupts the presents action of the plot to shift to the future; readers know the future but the characters do not

Foreshadowing
- The use of clues to hint at events that will occur later in the plot; used to build suspense and sometimes, anxiety for the reader

Prediction
- A type of inference; a guess based on evidence
Plot
-a series of related events that make up a story or drama; what happens in a story
1: Plot and Setting
2: Character

Collections 1 and 2
Exposition
Conflicts
Complications
Climax
Resolution/Denouement
basic situation; the beginning part of a plot that gives information about the characters and their problems or conflicts
the struggles within a story; the struggle or clash between opposing characters or opposing forces
External Conflict-
when a character struggles against an outside force. This outside force may be another character, society as a whole, or something nature.
Internal Conflict-
when conflict takes place entirely within a character’s mind; a struggle between a character and themselves
the second stage of a stories plot when a character takes some action(s) to resolve the conflict but is met with more problems
A moment of great emotional intensity or suspense within the plot; usually marks the moment when the conflict is decided one way or another
the final part of the story; all the struggles are over and readers know what is going to happen to the characters
"The Most Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell
Pg. 5-22
listen
Elements of Literature
setting
mood/atmosphere
tone
image/sensory details
Setting
- tells readers where and when a story takes place; reveals character traits and meaning
* weather
* time of day
* time period in history
*cultural customs

Mood/Atmosphere
- the emotional affect that draws readers into the stories plot and makes us care about its characters

Tone-
the attitude toward a certain character or subject
Setting is created through images
Beautiful language can transport us into the heart of the action of a story.

To create a setting which affects our senses and draws us in, writers use images.

Images/sensory details
-words or phrases that call forth a response from our senses of sight, smell, touch, hearing, and taste
"A Christmas Memory"
by Truman Capote
Pg. 51-60
While reading, record the numerous images Capote uses to describe the setting.
Memorable Characters
Elements of Literature
Creating characters--telling what human beings are like--is the whole point of writing stories.

A story is interesting to us as readers largely because of what it tells us about people and how they behave.

Author's reveal their characters through the element of characterization
speech
first-person narration
dialogue
dramatic monologue
soliloquy
appearance
private thoughts
actions
direct characterization
indirect characterization
conflict
protagonist
antagonist
external conflict
internal conflict
subordinate characters
motivation
flat character
round character
dynamic
static
Interpreting characters through their words
Speech
- what the characters themselves actually say; the most obvious form of characterization
Author's use a character's speech in 4 ways
First Person
- when characters tell their own stories

- they speak directly to the reader
- present facts, such as telling the events in the story, but also tell us what they think and feel
- as the character talks, they reveal their personality traits
Dialogue
-the conversation between characters

- through dialogue, we learn about the characters not only by what they say about themselves, but how they respond to others.
Dramatic Monologue
-a poem in which a speaker addresses one or more silent listeners, often reflecting on a specific problem or situation

- reveals facts about the speaker's life and values
- we also learn about the speaker's relationship with the listeners
Soliloquy
- a self-revealing speech given by a character

-common in plays where a character reveals their deepest thoughts to the audience.
Other Clues to Character
Appearance-
Writers reveal character traits through descriptions of their character's physical features

Private Thoughts
-when a writer takes us into the character's mind to reveal their inner thoughts

Actions
-what we as readers see the characters doing; one of the most important ways we learn about character

Readers also learn about characters by watching how other characters in the story feel about them. Different characters may express different feelings towards the same character
Direct Characterization
- when a writer tells us directly what a character is like or what a person's motives are.
Indirect Characterization
- when a writer shows us a character but allows us to interpret for ourselves the kind of person we are meeting.
"Oh, but he was a tightfisted hand at the grindstone, Scrooge! A squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous old sinner!"

-Charles Dickens
"The large woman simply turned around and kicked him right square in his blue-jeaned sitter. Then she reached down, picked the boy up by his shirt front, and shook him until his teeth rattled."

-Langston Hughes
Character Interactions
For fiction to really engage readers, it needs vivid, complex characters whose problems and triumphs draw forth our emotions and reveal truth about humankind.
Characters in Conflict
Often a story involves a main character that we care about because this character may remind us of a person we know or even of ourselves.

Conflict-
what sets the main character's story in motion.

Protagonist-
the main character

Antagonist-
the character or force the protagonist struggles against and must overcome

External Conflict-
when the conflict is an outside force--another person, society, a creature, etc.

Internal Conflict-
when the character must face a conflict within themselves

Frequently, an external conflict results in an internal struggle

Subordinate Characters-
minor characters writers use to add depth and complication to the plot
Motivation--The Driving Force
Motivation-
what drives a character's actions.

Writer's rarely make direct statements about a character's motivation. Instead, they plant clues and rely on readers to make inferences from these clues.
Flat Characters-
have only one or two character traits. These characters are simply understood and don't face complicated conflicts.

Round Characters-
a figure who has several sides to their personality. These characters face complicated situations.
Characters and Change
In most stories, as the characters struggle to resolve their conflicts. They learn something about themselves or other people or even the world.

They change their attitudes or take action to change their behavior.

Dynamic Characters-
characters that grow or change in some way

Static characters
-don't change or progress. At the end of the story, they are the same as they were in the beginning.
"Thank You, M'am"
by Langston Hughes
Pg. 87-90
Langston Hughes is most famously known as a poet who greatly contributed to the time of American Literature known as the Harlem Renaissance. Many of Hughe's works were written in a run-down apartment over-looking a poor Harlem neighborhood. This setting is evident in this story and is written in the dialect and slang of the time. His characters say what is on their minds using the language they would have everyday.
Imagine, an elegant table set for twenty. The sitting room just beyond the decorated dining room is filled with a buzz of cheerful chatter. The gathering of old and some new, friends are warming themselves by the oak fireplace before enjoying an endless holiday meal. The turkey which has cautiously baked throughout the morning hours will fill not only their rumbling stomachs, but warm their hearts. At last, the grand entry way doors swing open as the smell of soft biscuits and gravy sweeps the foyer, inviting the dinner guests to their Thanksgiving feast.
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