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Collections 1 and 2
Transcript of Collections 1 and 2
Elements of Literature
It's all about timing!
- the order in which events unfold in real time; the writer tells about each event in the order in which it happens
- A scene that interrupts the present action of the plot to flash back in time; gives the readers some background information that helps them make sense of a story
- A scene that interrupts the presents action of the plot to shift to the future; readers know the future but the characters do not
- The use of clues to hint at events that will occur later in the plot; used to build suspense and sometimes, anxiety for the reader
- A type of inference; a guess based on evidence
-a series of related events that make up a story or drama; what happens in a story
1: Plot and Setting
Collections 1 and 2
basic situation; the beginning part of a plot that gives information about the characters and their problems or conflicts
the struggles within a story; the struggle or clash between opposing characters or opposing forces
when a character struggles against an outside force. This outside force may be another character, society as a whole, or something nature.
when conflict takes place entirely within a character’s mind; a struggle between a character and themselves
the second stage of a stories plot when a character takes some action(s) to resolve the conflict but is met with more problems
A moment of great emotional intensity or suspense within the plot; usually marks the moment when the conflict is decided one way or another
the final part of the story; all the struggles are over and readers know what is going to happen to the characters
"The Most Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell
Elements of Literature
- tells readers where and when a story takes place; reveals character traits and meaning
* time of day
* time period in history
- the emotional affect that draws readers into the stories plot and makes us care about its characters
the attitude toward a certain character or subject
Setting is created through images
Beautiful language can transport us into the heart of the action of a story.
To create a setting which affects our senses and draws us in, writers use images.
-words or phrases that call forth a response from our senses of sight, smell, touch, hearing, and taste
"A Christmas Memory"
by Truman Capote
While reading, record the numerous images Capote uses to describe the setting.
Elements of Literature
Creating characters--telling what human beings are like--is the whole point of writing stories.
A story is interesting to us as readers largely because of what it tells us about people and how they behave.
Author's reveal their characters through the element of characterization
Interpreting characters through their words
- what the characters themselves actually say; the most obvious form of characterization
Author's use a character's speech in 4 ways
- when characters tell their own stories
- they speak directly to the reader
- present facts, such as telling the events in the story, but also tell us what they think and feel
- as the character talks, they reveal their personality traits
-the conversation between characters
- through dialogue, we learn about the characters not only by what they say about themselves, but how they respond to others.
-a poem in which a speaker addresses one or more silent listeners, often reflecting on a specific problem or situation
- reveals facts about the speaker's life and values
- we also learn about the speaker's relationship with the listeners
- a self-revealing speech given by a character
-common in plays where a character reveals their deepest thoughts to the audience.
Other Clues to Character
Writers reveal character traits through descriptions of their character's physical features
-when a writer takes us into the character's mind to reveal their inner thoughts
-what we as readers see the characters doing; one of the most important ways we learn about character
Readers also learn about characters by watching how other characters in the story feel about them. Different characters may express different feelings towards the same character
- when a writer tells us directly what a character is like or what a person's motives are.
- when a writer shows us a character but allows us to interpret for ourselves the kind of person we are meeting.
"Oh, but he was a tightfisted hand at the grindstone, Scrooge! A squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous old sinner!"
"The large woman simply turned around and kicked him right square in his blue-jeaned sitter. Then she reached down, picked the boy up by his shirt front, and shook him until his teeth rattled."
For fiction to really engage readers, it needs vivid, complex characters whose problems and triumphs draw forth our emotions and reveal truth about humankind.
Characters in Conflict
Often a story involves a main character that we care about because this character may remind us of a person we know or even of ourselves.
what sets the main character's story in motion.
the main character
the character or force the protagonist struggles against and must overcome
when the conflict is an outside force--another person, society, a creature, etc.
when the character must face a conflict within themselves
Frequently, an external conflict results in an internal struggle
minor characters writers use to add depth and complication to the plot
Motivation--The Driving Force
what drives a character's actions.
Writer's rarely make direct statements about a character's motivation. Instead, they plant clues and rely on readers to make inferences from these clues.
have only one or two character traits. These characters are simply understood and don't face complicated conflicts.
a figure who has several sides to their personality. These characters face complicated situations.
Characters and Change
In most stories, as the characters struggle to resolve their conflicts. They learn something about themselves or other people or even the world.
They change their attitudes or take action to change their behavior.
characters that grow or change in some way
-don't change or progress. At the end of the story, they are the same as they were in the beginning.
"Thank You, M'am"
by Langston Hughes
Langston Hughes is most famously known as a poet who greatly contributed to the time of American Literature known as the Harlem Renaissance. Many of Hughe's works were written in a run-down apartment over-looking a poor Harlem neighborhood. This setting is evident in this story and is written in the dialect and slang of the time. His characters say what is on their minds using the language they would have everyday.
Imagine, an elegant table set for twenty. The sitting room just beyond the decorated dining room is filled with a buzz of cheerful chatter. The gathering of old and some new, friends are warming themselves by the oak fireplace before enjoying an endless holiday meal. The turkey which has cautiously baked throughout the morning hours will fill not only their rumbling stomachs, but warm their hearts. At last, the grand entry way doors swing open as the smell of soft biscuits and gravy sweeps the foyer, inviting the dinner guests to their Thanksgiving feast.