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The Fertile Crescent
Transcript of The Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent?
nicknamed the "
Cradle of Civilization,
" is a region in the Middle East that contains moist and productive soil, and major rivers
What are civilizations and where did they first start?
The region served as an
in the desert which drew the attention of roaming bands of nomads.
As a Result...
In between the
Rivers, the world's first civilization began.
Hammurabi Is King
Warrior and a Scholar
People learn to control water
Dug holes to store water
Made Canals to move water
Dams to control flooding
...or believed in many different gods
Develop the first writing system called
This is called
Created songs, stories, poems, and laws
Sargon I creates the first permanent army and
A land that includes many kingdoms and people
A brilliant warrior, he defeats and unites all of Mesopotamia
His new empire is called The Babylonian Empire
Turns out Hammurabi's a pretty smart guy
Hammurabi made sure his new empire flourished by creating a system of
Hammurabi creates the first set of written laws
It had laws on theft, murder, and trade. Everyone followed them!
They are called
Land between Two Rivers
"If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out."
They believed these gods ruled all natural forces like:
3100 BCE - 300 BCE
The Gift of the Nile
The Nile River:
Most of its 4,000 miles flows through the
, the largest desert in the world
Without the life-giving waters of the Nile, no life would have ever formed there
What other major river system supported an ancient civilization?
Civilization Number One
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
The Kingdom that Followed
The Beginning of Ancient Egypt
Egyptian civilization originally started as a small collection of fishing villages up and down the Nile River
These villages were eventually
into the Upper and Lower Kingdoms. The Lower Kingdom comprised the Nile Delta, while the Upper Kingdom represented the Nile valley
Each kingdom had different
, and worshiped
It wasn't until 3100 BCE that a ruler named
conquered and unified all of Egypt into one
or a series of rulers from the same family
Two Thumbs Up
The history of Ancient Egypt is so vast that we can spend an entire year studying it and still not learn everything!
So in this class we'll break it down to the two most dominate forces of Egyptian life:
To meet the needs of a skyrocketing population and increasingly demanding and diverse society, a
strong, central government
Enter the Pharaohs
The head of the Egyptian government was the all-powerful
. The Pharaohs were commanding men who held absolute control of everything in Egypt.
The God King
These groups settled down and started humankind's first
Civilization Number Two
Government + Religion = ?
Because the Pharaohs were revered as religious figures and held supreme power, a new form of government was born =
Theocracy means, "Rule by God" or a government run by religious figures
Are there any Theocracies in the world today?
They were seen as
who controlled the sunrise, river, and crops.
In Osiris we Pray
Like the Mesopotamian Civilizations, the Egyptians were also polytheists
These gods were thought to control all aspects of life, so the Egyptian people built numerous monuments called
in their honor
The Big Question
So the big question on everyone's mind was this:
What happens to us when we die?
The Egyptians believed in the
When their physical bodies died, their
, or spirit, lived on
The Mummy Returns
Through these systems he
collected money from his people
to support the empire, and exchanged goods and services!
This system of exchanging goods and services was called
Turns out, relatively all life forms need
to exist and flourish. Humans are no different.
In fact the Epic of Gilgamesh, a story of the King of Uruk, is one of the earliest known works of literature.
The Epic says that the Mesopotamian Gods were incredibly angry at how loud and annoying people were so they sent a massive flood to kill humanity. Yikes
The longest river in the world
Flooded regularly from rain and melting snow
Flood waters left behind Silt (Sand & Clay)
Worshiped as a God
Why did they stay there?
Turns out as rivers go, the Nile is
Flooding was Predictable.
The Desert was a natural barrier from vicious attackers
And it was full of these
The Egyptians believed than in order to keep their immortal souls alive, the physical body must be
This was called
To do this they developed a way to preserve and prevent the body from
Councils or religious leaders took charge and began leading complex systems like
"If you want to know what to do in life, cling to the pharaoh and be loyal" - Egyptian Writer