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Cholesterol

Biomed Project 4.3.1: What is Cholesterol?
by

brooklynn pierce

on 21 February 2014

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Transcript of Cholesterol

What are LDL and HDL?
LDL is low-density lipoprotein and it makes up the majority of the majority of the bodies cholesterol.
HDL is high-density lipoprotein and removes the bad cholesterol from where it does belong in the
body.
Who do doctors monitor the concentrations of LDL and HDL in patients' blood?
Doctors monitor the concentration of LDL and HDL to make sure that the patient isn't at risk for build up in the arteries or develop any kind of cardiovascular diseases. If the LDL and HDL gets too high or too low the doctor needs to be aware of the condition the patient are in and prescribe the correct medication or drugs to lower or higher the concentration to reach a close to average level.
How do LDL and HDL differ structurally and functionally?
STRUCTURE:
An LDL particle is a very small blob consisting of an outer rim of lipoprotein surrounding a cholesterol filled center. LDL particles tend to be less dense than other kinds of cholesterol particles.
Each HDL cholesterol particle is a very small blob that consists of a rim of lipoprotein surrounding a cholesterol center. The HDL cholesterol particles are more dense compared to other types of cholesterol particles.

FUNCTION:
LDL collects in the walls of the blood vessels and causes blockage of the Atherosclerosis. The white blood cells try to swallow and digest the LDL, and turns it into a toxic form. It then creates a bump in the artery wall called plague.
HDL reduces the risk for heart disease by removing the LDL(bad cholesterol) out of areas it doesn't belong in. It chemically scrubs the endothelium clean and keeps it healthy.
Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a fat, waxy-like substance that’s found in all cells of the body.Your body needs some cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and substances that help you digest your foods.

How are the concentrations of LDL and HDL associated with the risk for heart disease and other associated disorders?
When there is too much cholesterol in your blood, it collects into the walls of your arteries, causing a process called atherosclerosis, one form of heart disease. The arteries become more narrowed and the blood flow to the heart muscle is slowed or blocked. The LDL is like the trash bags that are left on the side of the streets. The more that are placed on the sides the less space there is to get through. HDL is the garbage truck that scavenges the LDL (trash) deposits. The more the HDL the lower the plaque residue.The more the LDL the higher the plaque residue.
What is it?
What other molecules in a patient's blood are monitored along with the LDL and HDL?
Some other molecules that are monitored are triglycerides, red blood cells, white blood cells, and hemoglobin.
What do the results of a Cholesterol test mean?
Total blood cholesterol levels:
High risk
: 240 mg/dL and above
Borderline high risk
: 200-239 mg/dL
Average
: Less than 200 mg/dL


HDL cholesterol levels:
High risk
: Less than 40 mg/dL
Average
: 60 mg/dL and above

How do patients interpret each value?
When you take the cholesterol tests you will receive a number from each category above (Total, LDL, HDL, and Triglyceride). You will then compare your results to the set of numbers for each desired category. After that you would figure out what levels are too high, low, or perfectly normal and consult your doctor on the procedures you should take.
LDL cholesterol levels:
Very high risk
: 190 mg/dL and above
High risk
: 160-189 mg/dL
Borderline high risk
: 130-159 mg/dL
Near optimal
: 100-129 mg/dL
Optimal
: Less than 100 mg/dL

Triglyceride levels:
Very high risk
: 500 mg/dL and above
High risk
: 200-499 mg/dL
Borderline high risk
: 150-199 mg/dL
Average
: Less than 150 mg/dL
What can patients do the change the levels of LDL and HDL?
To avoid a high cholesterol you can do the following:
How does the intake of fats affect cholesterol levels and overall health?
Taking in several fats daily isn't healthy . These fats will make your cholesterol level increase rapidly, and cause you to gain weight and thus exceed your healthy weight you need to maintain. These fats will increase risk of heart attacks,strokes, and cancer; what you eat plays a significant role in how much cholesterol you are absorbing in a day and also how much your body will produce.
Eat a healthy diet
Maintain a healthy weight
Don't smoke
Exercise regularly
Take Prescribed Medication
Cited Web Addresses
http://www.webmd.com/cholesterol-management/hdl-cholesterol-the-good-cholesterol

http://www.webmd.com/cholesterol management/ldl-cholesterol-the-bad-cholesterol

http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/guide/heart-disease-lower-cholesterol-risk

https://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/SymptomsDiagnosisMonitoringofHighCholesterol/How-To-Get-Your-Cholesterol-Tested_UCM_305595_Article.jsp

http://www.healthcentral.com/cholesterol/c/59/2543/fat-good-bad/
Full transcript