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Revolutions Sweep Europe
Transcript of Revolutions Sweep Europe
European monarchs worked together to ensure stability
Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
Alexis de Tocqueville- quote on pg. 539
Demands for Reform Spread
"When France sneezes, Europe catches a cold"
What does this mean?
Revolts happen in
Rebellions Erupt in Eastern Europe
The Balkan areas started to rebel against the Ottoman Empire.
Revolutions Sweep Europe 14.1
Conservatives wanted to restore life back to the way it was before Napoleon altered the landscape
They believed natural rights and constitutional governments would lead to chaos just like it did in France
Liberalism and nationalism spur revolts
Liberals fought conservatives hard for natural rights and did not want to go back to the old ways
Liberals wanted to embrace Adam Smith and Ricardo ideas about free markets and open economies.
Take a look at the goals of Liberals and Conservatives pg. 538
For a lots of history monarchs and rulers traded land, people, territories and it resulted in a mixed group of people living together.
Now, big empires like the Ottoman, Austrian, Russian etc.
had ethnic groups that were fighting for their own country
Nationalism gave people an identity but also turned people with different identities against each other.
From 1804-1817 Serbia battled the Ottoman Empire in two
uprisings. They had Russian support because of a shared slavic heritage and Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
Eventually, Serbia got some autonomy and although they weren't recognized by other countries as officially being their own country. They remained close to Russia.
Greece also fought the Ottoman's for independence. Although they were fighting amongst themselves as well, western European countries came to help them. They were granted independence by 1830
1820's many European nations like Spain, Portugal and regions in Italy demanded constitutional governments.
Why would monarchs order their armies to suppress a revolution in other areas?
In France many groups were debating on what should be done while Louis XVIII was back on the throne.
Ultra Royalists wanted the king to be reinstalled with all of the powers as before, liberals wanted to extend suffrage and win a share of the power for the middle class and a radical group wanted to go back to the system they had after the French Revolution.
They ended somewhere in between and left very few people happy.
When Louis XVIII died, Charles X took over and he was a big proponent of absolutism
When he reversed any liberal progress the people revolted and and ran him out of the country and the tricolor flag flew at the Notre Dame cathedral.
Louis Philippe became King next and he was considered the citizens king because he was a man of the people. He extended suffrage but only to some elites
Belgium Wins Independence-
In 1830 Belgium became an independent state with a liberal constitution backed by European powers to remain a neutral state.
In 1815 the congress united Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) and the Kingdom of Holland under the Dutch King. This angered Belgium and because of the religious, economic and cultural difference between the two places so they fought for their independence.
Poland attempted to win independence but were crushed by Russian forces and Russia took much of Poland.
The Revolution of 1848 in France
A recession in France raised tensions towards another revolution.
Violence Erupts During "February Days" and a revolution happened. But people are split on what reform they wanted.
As the government and citizens battled a new government was forming.
The new reform added a new constitution that had one-house legislature and allowed all white men to vote.
Louis Napoleon is elected President by the end of 1848, he attracted working class by a perception of being a man of the people and was attractive to the conservatives because of his Napoleon name.
Napoleon the third, became the leader and proclaimed himself emperor, this quickly ended the Second Republic.
The second revolution in France spread across Europe just like the first did. Many middle-class liberals wanted a greater share of political power, basic rights and suffrage.
Austria, students and workers joined together to stage a revolution. They were successful in Prague and Czech. But, Austrian government quickly regained control of the area.
In Italy they had many revolts, some based off of nationalism ideas (kick out the Hapsburg empire) at other times neighboring countries came to help. Why would they do that?
German States- Germany united after conferences and decided to give the Federick William IV the throne of united Germany. He denied the crown by saying he didn't want to accept the crown because it was selected by the people 'from the gutter"
Many revolutions failed because of lack of support.
Liberalism, nationalism and socialism all on the rise in the coming decades.