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The Hot Zone Project
Transcript of The Hot Zone Project
These viral genomes may be:
-double stranded DNA
-single stranded DNA
-double stranded RNA
-single stranded RNA The smallest virus consists of 4 genes while the biggest consists between hundreds to thousands of genes! Fun Fact: Capsid: a protein shell that encloses the viral genome
Viral Envelopes: "envelopes" that contain host cell phospholipis, membrane proteins, proteins, glycoproteins of viral origin. They are derived from the host cell, such as a bacteria. Examples of Different Shapes of Capsids: Tobacco Mosaic Virus: rigid, rod-shaped capsid
Helical Virus: rod-shaped capsid
Adenovirus: polyhedral capsid with 20 facets (icosahedron) The most complex capsids are found in bacteriophages, or phages. Tobacco Mosaic Viruses have a helical caspid, with the overall shape of a rigid rod. Adenoviruses have icosahedral caspids with a glycoprotein spike at each vertex. Influenza Viruses have an outer envelop studded with glycoprotein spikes. The genome consists of 8 RNA molecules, each wrapped in a helical caspid. Bacteriophages have a highly complex consisting of an icosahedral head and a tail apparatus. Viruses Bacteria Must use a host cell to reproduce
May have a RNA or a DNA genome
Not considered alive. Reproduce, by themselves, asexually.
Have a circular, DNA genome.
Considered living organisms. The main difference between viruses and bacteria is that bacteria, being able to reproduce without 'aid,' are considered living organisms, while viruses, due to a need for a host cell in order to make copies, are not. a bacteriophage T4 a common prokaryote Hong Kong Flu Lysogenic Cycle Lytic Cycle Ends in the death of the host cell by rupturing, called lysis
1. bacteriophage injects DNA into a host cell, such as a bacteria.
2. orders the cell to copy more of its viral DNA and the protein coats.
3. more bacteriophages are produced.
4. bacterial cell is ruptured which releases the bacteriophages. Bacteriophage's DNA become incorporated into the host cell's DNA like an engineered plamid, and replicated
1. prophage, the viral DNA, is made when the bacteriophage's DNA is incorporated with the bacterial DNA.
2. bacteria starts reproducing, copying the prophage.
3. the replicated bacteria start creating prophages, usually ending up in the lytic cycle. Many parents have expressed concern that vaccinations cause dieases or even mental disorders like autism, though there is very little actual evidence to support this idea. However, parents not vaccinating their children can cause future troubles, because those children are now at greater risks of getting dieases hospitals rarely see and rarely treat, or dieases, like polio or small pox, that are highly aggressive and next to impossible to cure or treat. Black Death HIV/AIDS About H3N2 Virus subtype of the avian flu virus
killed up to 750,000 people~1 million people
began in Hong Kong in 1968 and spread to U.S.
descended from H2N2 virus by antigenic shift
least lethal pandemic in the 20th century H3N2 Least Lethal Pandemic...Why? similar to the 1957 Asian Flu (H2N2) so most people were immune to the flu
children were at home during the winter breakouts, which prevented majority of the spread What Areas Were Affected? Vietnam
United States (by soldiers returning from the Vietnam War) Hong Kong Flu Pattern About Black Death Yersinia Pestis (the phage responsible for causing Black Death) killed 75 million~200 million people
Yersinis Pestis was responsible for causing the plague
carried and spread by "Oriental rat fleas" and "black rats"
killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population
took 150 years for Europe's population to recover Origins China or Central Asia
Spread along the Silk Road and reached Crimea by 1346 About HIV/AIDS transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse
contaminated blood transfusions
no cure found so far
recently, a baby with HIV/AIDS was completely cured with the help of medical assistance for 2 years Origin west-central Africa (prediction) People living with HIV/AIDS
As you can see, United States, parts of East Africa, India have the most people with HIV. An Human Immunodeficiency Virus AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Impact Health Sector
expensive medical bills
longer time spent in hospitals
people are not admitted until they are at serious stages due to space
increase in destitute households
children may have to abandon education
women may turn to prostituion for money, increasing HIV infection
government income declines Impacts HAND-WRITTEN Economy
world-wide trade declined
European wars paused
survivors were able to demand a higher pay from their landowners
survivors moved to cities, and contributed to urbanization
Cultural Changes and Beliefs
Thousands of Jews were murdered when Christians thought that the Plague occured from Jews poisoning the waterways.
Art, music and literature was depressing and gloomy
Pandemic Similarities What a Virus Is:
Viruses consists of genetic information (DNA or RNA) and a protein coat (capsid)
they're traditionally not considered "alive" because they need a host cell in order to replicate
first discovered by Dmitri Ivanovsky, studying the Tobacco Mosaic Virus.
he realized that not bacteria, but something smaller was causing the disease
more viruses have been discovered ever since Prokaryotic Viruses:
known as phages
"eats" lawns of bacteria
10^31 phages on Earth
goes through "Lytic Cycle"
infection, synthesis, assembly, release
example: T4 phage
goes through "Lysogenic Cycle"
phage DNA is spliced into bacterial chromosome and bacteria reproduces
example: lambda phage
treatment of bacterial diseases using phages
basically killing bacteria using viruses Eukaryotic Viruses:
more diverse than phages
DNA or RNA sequences, single or double stranded
lipid envelopes surrounding capsid
transmitted in aerosol form
responsible for the most death in human history than any other virus
HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
includes a code for reverse transcriptase
allows RNA to go through "reverse transcription" to become DNA
HIV destroys the immune system, and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) takes place
manifests as "blotchy" pigment patterns What a Virus Isn't:
disease causing RNA in plants
does NOT code for protein
disease cusing protein molecules
no genetic material
CWD (deer) HIV/AIDS v. Black Death Both HIV/AIDS and the Black Death caused depressing impacts on the society, such as expensive medical bills, drop of economy, and the fact that both diseases are easily transmitted, though HIV/AIDS is usually through direct contact of a human fluid. They are also both deadly diseases because they both killed millions. Both also affected parts of Europe and Asia. HIV/AIDS v. Hong Kong Flu versus HIV/AIDS and Hong Kong Flu do not have many similarities because HIV/AIDS is a deadly disease and kills millions per year, while the Hong Kong Flu lasted from 1968 to 1969, killing around 1 million. Comopared to HIV/AIDS, the Hong Kong Flu does not have a big casualty, which is why it is called the least lethal pandemic of the 20th century. However, the Hong Kong Flu is a type of H3N2 virus, which later mutated and became the infamous "swine flu." In addition, HIV/AIDS affects parts of China, India, Thailand, basically everywhere in the world, and Hong Kong affected the majority of Asia and the United States so they are similar in some of the areas they affected. versus Black Death v. Hong Kong Flu The Black Death affected Europe and the Hong Kong Flu affected Asia. These are very different sources of origins and affected areas. However, according to sources, the Black Death originated from central China, and the Hong Kong Flu from Hong Kong. They are both Chinese territories today. versus There can be genetic vartiation in a viral population in a variety of ways. One way is when a virus replicates its DNA via a host cell, in a cycle like the Lytic Cycle. As the DNA is replicated, some genetic information may be altered, due to mutations or mistakes in the gene. According to Darwin's Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, organisms tend to adapt to their environments from generations to generations, adapting further down the generation. Because they need to adapt to the new environment every time from host to host, they tend to have genetic variation in their population. For example, a virus in a human cell would have different characterisitcs than a virus in a plant cell. Therefore, it is natural for the viral population to have a genetic variation because of their changing environment from generation to generation. The Lysogenic Cycle shows how viruses can put genetic variation into a host. When the viral DNA is spliced into the bacterial DNA, there is a big chance that some genes may be lost during the process of splicing. In addition, mutations like what can happen to a viral population may also happen to create genetic variation of the host. As the lysogenic cycle and the lytic cycle couple, that can cause mutations to create genetic variation in the host, even if the host cannot survive in the environment with the given DNA by the virus.