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Control of Water Density and Scale

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Boom Walker

on 7 March 2015

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Transcript of Control of Water Density and Scale

Component Subject
to Fouling :
Fouling or Scale
is the accumulation or unwanted material on solid surface to the detriment of function. the fouling material can consist of either living organisms or a non-living organisms
*Deposit Formation
*Scaling Formation
How to Remove Scale in Pipe?
Their are effective chemicals which can easy dissolve and remove the scale from pipe surfaces.
example :
Calcium Carbonate scale Can be dissolved by using 5-10% HLI dilute solution.
Calcium Sulphate scales can be dissolved by adding EDTA(ethylyne diamine tetra acetic acid)
It is well known that calcium carbonate phase transformation is significantly affected bt temperature.
*Found that at temp. of 30degrees Celsius, pure amorphous calcium carbonate will transform into calcite via vaterite while at temperature of 40 degrees Celsius the pure ACC will change into aragonite via vaterite. It is reasonable to assume that different crystalline phases would have different.
Control of Water Density and Scale
Their are other terms use in Literature to describe fouling :
*Heat exchanger surfaces –
reduces thermal efficiency, decreases heat flux, increases temperature on the hot side, decreases temperature on the cold side, induces under-deposit corrosion, increases use of cooling water;.
Piping, flow channels – reduces flow, increases pressure drop, increases upstream pressure, increases energy expenditure, may cause flow oscillations, slugging in two-phase flow, cavitation; may increase flow velocity elsewhere, may induce vibrations, may cause flow blockage;
Ship hulls – creates additional drag, increases fuel usage, reduces maximum speed
By using hydrochloric and mixed in water we can remove the scale formation in pipe. but this can be use for PVC pipes only, not for metal pipes their are some other chemicals used as per the material of construction of pipe.
The formation mechanism of corrosion scale and electrochemical characteristic of low alloy steel in CO2-saturated solution were investigated by electrochemical measurements and surface characterization. The results show that the electrochemical behavior is associated with the formation of corrosion scale and the microstructure of steel.

At the initial polarization stage, ferrite dissolves preferentially and leaves Fe3C behind, which results in high Fe2+ ions concentration between lamellar Fe3C. This situation facilitates the formation of FeCO3 scale between the lamellar Fe3C. With further increase of polarization times, the whole electrode surface is covered by FeCO3 scale.

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