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2 Gestalt Freud and Early Behaviorism
Transcript of 2 Gestalt Freud and Early Behaviorism
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
The early 20th century saw the birth of yet another branch of psychology known as Gestalt, a German word meaning "an organized whole". This new form of Psychology was started by Max Wertheimer. He objected to the Structuralist view of the mind. He believed psychological phenomena like sensing and perceiving could not be broken down into smaller elements and still be understood. A good metaphor would be a computer.
Gestalt's focus on perception, and the laws of perception it established can still be found today in the field of cognitive psychology. This newer branch of psychology focuses on perception, learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving.
Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
All the early psychologists we have examined thus far focused only on understanding human consciousness. Freud on the other hand wanted to approach psychology from a medical perspective. He developed his theories by working mainly with middle and upper middle class women in Vienna.
The Separation of the Conscious and Unconscious
Freud developed the theory that the mind can be broken down into three distinct parts, each controlling a different part of the personality.
The Id is the dark side of personality, it is driven by the pleasure principle; A desire to maximize pleasure while minimizing pain.
The Super-Ego is the moral and just side of your personality; it uses the guilt principle to keep your behavior in check.
The Ego is the part of your personality you are consciously aware of. It is a unifying force between the Id and Super-Ego and operates on the Reality Principle.
Development of the Super-Ego
The Super-Ego develops during childhood, as we are taught right from wrong by our caregivers. Therefore everyone's Super-Ego is different.
Psychoanalytic view of Psychosexual Development
In Freud's theory humans are born with natural sexual drives that develop in 5 stages as we age. It was Freud's theory that if a child experienced any sort of difficulty during one of these developmental stages it would cause anxiety and neurosis later in life.
The 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development
Oral, Birth-1 year
Anal, 1-3 years
Phallic, 3-6 years
Latency, 6 years-puberty
Results of Complications During the 5 Stages
- Chewing on pens, chewing gum constantly etc.
- Smoking, eating, kissing, preoccupation with oral sexual practices
-Obsession with neatness and organization
- Reckless, Careless, Defiant, etc.
- If fixation occurs during latency period
Frigidity, Impotence, Unsatisfactory Relationships
- If fixation occurs in the genital stage
The Oedipus Complex
During the Phallic Stage the sexual drives of the child are directed toward the mother, and feelings of rivalry and jealousy are directed toward the same sex parent.
The child views the same sex parent as a rival, but also fears them due to Castration anxiety, thus the child ends up identifying with the same sex parent and develops their gender identity.
The Electra Complex
The Electra Complex involves the girls sexual drives being directed toward the mother as well, however the girl develops penis envy when she realizes she cannot sexually possess the mother. She instead turns her desires toward her father. The penis envy will not be resolved until she carries a child to replace it.
Psychoanalytic Diagnostic Examples
Ivan Pavlov was not a psychologist, he was a Russian physiologist who studied dogs. He learned to link a natural reflex (salivation) to an unrelated stimuli (the sound of a bell). The idea was simple, ring the bell, give the dog food, and repeat. After enough repetition the two would be linked. This process is known as "classical conditioning"
Pavlov and His Dogs
John Watson and Behaviorism
In the early 1900's a psychologist named John B. Watson was tired of the arguing between the Structuralists and Functionalists. He also was not a believer of Freud's Psychoanalytic theory.
It was Watson's belief that psychology should be brought to a focus on science. To do this he ignored the thoughts of the individual and instead focused on things that could be observed, behaviors.
Do you think Watson had the right idea?
It was Watson's belief that human behavior was learned, including phobias. To prove his point Watson taught a baby "little Albert" to have an extreme fear of white rats. This video will explain further.
Abuses of Power
While Watson's experiment was a success it is not known what happened to little Albert later in life. Watson made no effort to cure the phobia he had created. One of Watson's graduate students would later replicate the experiment with another child, but included steps to cancel out the phobia.
How might Behaviorism be used for therapy?