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The Roaring Twenties

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Noelle Toxqui

on 27 January 2014

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Transcript of The Roaring Twenties

The Roaring Twenties
A Booming Economy
The Automobile Drives Prosperity
The Business of Government
Harding Administration
Social and Cultural Tensions
A New Mass Culture
New Trends in Popular Culture
The Harlem Renaissance
A New "Black Consciousness"
Unit 7: Warm Up #1
Think about the 1920s advertisements you looked at yesterday, focusing primarily on the Listerine ads from the handout. Write 2-3 sentences stating the impact you think this type of advertising strategy would have on consumers.
A Bustling Economy
Cities, Suburbs, and Country
Henry Ford Pioneers Mass Production
Early 1900s:
Only wealthy could afford cars
1908: Model T was $850

Henry Ford's mass production and the assembly line
reduced manufacturing of a
Model T
from 12 hours to 90 minutes and was more cost-efficient

By 1927:
56% of Americans owned cars
Model T was $290
The Automobile Changes America
Glass, rubber, asphalt, wood, gasoline, insurance, and road-construction
industries benefited

Rapid appearance of thousands of service stations, diners, motels

Automobile = freedom and prosperity
Advertising and Credit Build a Consumer Culture
1920s =
Consumer Revolution

Affordable goods made life easier (radios, refrigerators, vacuums, irons, washing machines, etc.)

Consumers could buy on credit w/
installment buying

Advertising flourished
Your teacher obviously doesn't endorse this ad.
The Big Bull Market Makes Fortunes
Bull Market
(rising stock prices)

Buying on margin
= buying stocks on credit

Big Bull Market stood on shaking ground... (spoiler alert)
moved to the cities

Skyscraper technology caused cities to stretch skyward

Improved transportation and cars allowed

Farmers suffered significantly
Coolidge Prosperity
America's Role in the World
New Policies Favor Big Business
Harding's Secretary of Treasury
Andrew Mellon supported business interests
and led the Treasury into surplus

Secretary of Commerce
Herbert Hoover

worked with business and labor
President Warren G. Harding

"Return to Normalcy"
Ohio Gang Crashes In
Harding was likable but not very smart, so he trusted others to make decisions

Ohio Gang
= Harding's poker buddies/dishonest public servants that
wanted to get rich at the expense of the people they were serving
The Teapot Dome Scandal Explodes
Teapot Dome Scandal: Secretary of Interior Albert Fall
leased government oil in return for
in 1921

Led to a Senate investigation and was revealed to the
public in 1924
Silent Cal Supports Big Business
Silent Cal was honest, quiet, & frugal

Trusted business
and filled his Administration with honest men who had older American virtues
Troubles Grew Beneath the Surface
Farmers struggled

Labor unions demanded higher wages & better conditions

African Americans faced severe discrimination and segregation
Seeking an End to War
Washington Naval Disarmament Conference
(1921-1922): World diplomats agreed to
limit construction of warships

Kellogg-Briand Pact
(1928): Many nations agreed to
outlaw war

(...sounds foolproof, right??)
Collecting War Debts
Dawes Plan: U.S. loaned money to Germany so Germany could pay reparations to Britain and France, who owed the U.S. money
(...wait, what?)

The Allies were irritated with how strict the U.S. was about repayment
Traditionalism and Modernism Clash
Urban vs. Rural America
: Emphasized science and secular values over traditional ideas about religion (

: Embraced a more
view of science, religion, and culture
Education Becomes More Important
Rural: Farmers wanted children to learn the Three R's: reading, writing, and arithmetic

Urban: Stressed mental abilities over physical abilities
Religious Fundamentalism Grows
believed that every word of the
Bible was the literal truth
and that every important scientific or moral question could be answered in the Bible.
Americans Clash Over Evolution
Scopes Trial of 1925: highlighted clashes of Fundamentalism& Modernism

Known as the
"Monkey Trial"

Tennessee banned teaching evolution

Defense Attorney Clarence Darrow defended John Scopes, a biology teacher in support of evolution

William Jennings Bryan (STILL ALIVE??) served as a Bible expert for the prosecution

Scopes was found guilty of breaking the law and fined $100
The New Ku Klux Klan
KKK of the 1920s: hated African Americans, Jews, Catholics, immigrants, and "immoral" people

"Invisible Empire": 4-5 million members throughout country in both rural areas and small cities (even Anaheim!)
Prohibition and Crime
Government Bans Alcoholic Beverages
18th Amendment
: prohibited sale, manufacture, and distribution of alcohol

Volstead Act
: Enforced the Amendment
Americans Break the Law
sold illegal alcohol

People went to
to drink illegally

Politicians and policemen in cities often "looked the other way"

Organized crime
21st Amendment repealed Prohibition
in 1933

Amendment = You can drink when you're
Al Capone
The Jazz Age
The Harlem Renaissance
Migrants Face Chances and Challenges
African Americans who migrated North still faced discrimination

in NY was a focal point for African Americans
Marcus Garvey Calls for Racial Pride
Marcus Garvey promoted black nationalism with his "Back to Africa" movement
F. Scott Fitzgerald called the 1920s the "Jazz Age"

Jazz started in the South and Midwest, particularly New Orleans, and gained worldwide popularity
Louis Armstrong - unofficial ambassador of jazz.
Restricting Immigration
Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and the National Origins Act of 1924
established a
quota system
limit immigration
from certain countries

Immigration from Mexico wasn't limited, but
Mexican immigrants faced discrimination, hostility, brutality, and violence
Bessie Smith - Empress of the Blues"
Duke Ellington - great jazz composer and figure
What's My Line
- 1953 (this is just for fun)
Harlem Renaissance = the flowering of African American culture

"New Negro"
was embodied by artists, poets, and novelists
African American Literature Flowers
Claude McKay
- showed hardships of ordinary African Americans in his poems and novels

Langston Hughes
- celebrated the diversity and culture of African Americans in poetry, fiction, and journalism

Zora Neale Hurston -
wrote folk tales and also showed women's longing for independence
(FYI: This African American identity and solidarity will help set the stage for the Civil Rights Movement)
An Age of Heroes
Women Assume New Roles
Modernism in Art and Literature
Americans Enjoy More Leisure Time
In the cities, the average workweek shortened, giving Americans more free time
Americans Flock to the Movies
Movies provided entertainment that crossed economic, ethnic, and geographic barriers
The Jazz Singer
First "talkie"
- movie with sound synchronized to the action

Al Jolson - "You ain't heard nothing yet."
Silent films
flourished during most of the 1920s
America's Sweetheart, Mary Pickford
Clara Bow - The "It" Girl
The Phantom of the Opera
The Radio and Phonograph Break Barriers

Charlie Chaplin
- the "Common Man" comic
Culture became more standardized
: Brought distant events to people. Americans could listen to music, lectures, sermons, news, commercials, and programs.
Amos 'n' Andy
- Radio Show
: Allowed Americans to listen to music and helped the spread of dances like the fox trot and the Charleston
Sports Heroes Win Fans
Rise of sports stars like baseball home-run king
Babe Ruth

-Golden Age of Sports
-Gold Ages of the Sportswriter
Lucky Lindy Crosses the Atlantic
Charles Lindbergh
became a hero after flying from NY to Paris in 1927 on a tiny single-engine plane,
The Spirit of St. Louis
Flappers Challenge Older Limits
The "New Woman" moved away from the Victorian Era and toward freedom
, shorter hemlines, bob hairstyles, makeup, "vices," and dancing

Not all women were flappers
, but many
sought independence and political and social equality
Women Make Strides
First women judges, engineers, pilots, governors, directors, senators

Women made gains in workplace
Family Life Changes
Women lived longer, married later, and had fewer children

Consumer economy transformed housework
The Arts Reflect a Mood of Uncertainty
Austrian psychologist
Sigmund Freud
's theory that human behavior is
driven by unconscious
desires inspired artists and writers
Modern Painting Challenges Tradition
Modern artists moved toward abstract patterns, bold colors, and honest portrayals of modern life
Postwar American Literature Flowers
Hey, it relates to the content...
"Lost Generation" writers searched for and expressed new truths, wrestling with the meaning of war and life.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Explored the
reality of the American Dream
of wealth, success, and emotional fulfillment.

The Great Gatsby (1925) highlighted the emptiness of the Jazz Age.
Ernest Hemingway
Felt betrayed by the American Dream and literary language and
created a new writing style
that was concrete and powerful

A Farewell to Arms (1929)
about doomed love during WWI
Warm Up #2: 1/21/14

What were some unintended consequences of Prohibition? Use your notes and the packet you were given on Friday as a guide. Write 3-4 sentences.
Unit 7: Warm Up #3

If someone were to study popular culture of the 2010s, how would it be described? Write 3 sentences.
Unit 7: Warm Up #4 1/24/14

1) If you've read
The Great Gatbsy
, write 3-4 sentences explaining how it relates to what we've learned about the 1920s.

2) If you haven't read it but have read another F. Scott Fitzgerald work, write 3-4 sentences relating it to the 1920s.

3) If you haven't read any of them, write a note to yourself to read
The Great Gatsby
and then write 3-4 sentences summarizing the 1920s so far.
Unit 7: Warm Up #5

Write down these due dates:

1) Wed, 1/29: Unit 7 Warm Ups and Slang Paragraph Due (5 warm ups total)
**If you were absent, YOU must write down the dates you were absent, otherwise YOU are responsible for turning in 5 warm ups***
2) Wed, 1/29 and Thurs, 1/30: Entire class period to work on project
**The speakeasy is also on Friday. I'll announce ways to earn class participation points that day later this week**
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