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Stages and Skills of Counseling

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Lauren Moss

on 21 February 2017

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Transcript of Stages and Skills of Counseling

Stages and Skills of Counseling
Stage 1:
Establishing the working Relationship
Stage 2:
Assessing/ defining the problem
Process of collecting and classifying information related to the client's life situation and reasons for seeking counseling.
Stage 3:
Identifying and Setting
Stage 4:
Choosing & Initiating Interventions
Stage 5:
Planning & Introducing Termination
- Understand the structure of the counseling process
- Explain how the structure of counseling helps the counselor determine what to do within counseling
- Conceptualize how to assess growth and change within counseling

How do you approach new relationships?
Do they make you nervous?
Offer you excitement?

What do you think it would be like to seek help from someone of the majority/ minority culture/ race/ ethnicity/ sexual orientation?

How much structure do you prefer in most situations?
What kinds of structure would make you comfortable in the counseling relationship?
How would you accommodate your client's needs for structure if they were different from your own?

between client & counselor which includes respect, trust, psychological comfort, &
therapeutic, working alliance
Climate - Impacted by professional qualifications, client's personal history, state of anxiety
"I know I need help and will feel better when I get it"

"I wish i weren't here!"
Important Skills:
-Social Skills
-Casual Conversation
-Active Listening/ Attending
Genuine, authentic alliance, but remember boundaries!
-Theoretical orientation
-Philosophical Assumptive World
-Client's presenting situation
-Counselor's understanding of presenting situation
-Cultural implications
"You are special and I want to get to know you and understand why you are the way you are" -Seligman (2004)
Source: affective/ emotional, behavioral,cognitive, relational/ systemic, milieu/ cultural
Impact: feelings, worries, undesired consequence, fear, relational issues,discrimination
Data Collection/ Inquiry:
-General State of anxiety/ discomfort
-Cultural Context
-Note Gestures/ movements that suggest emotional/ physical dysfunction
-Hear the manner in which the client frames or alludes to problems (diminished? inflated?)
-Verbal/ nonverbal patterns?
Set in order to know how well counseling is working and when counseling should be concluded.
Objectivity, training in behavior, experience.
Experience with problem/ history, insight, awareness of personal investment in change.
Skills for Goal Setting:
-Inferential skills
-Differentiation (ultimate, intermediate, immediate goals)
-Reality between types of goals
How will change occur???
emphasizes relationship
encourages client to recognize and assume responsibility
contingency activities
dissonance through pattern interruption
challenges interpersonal rules
focus on client's cultural milieu
Gain Information:
- What solutions have been tried?
-What type of problem?

View of Life situation?
cognitive shift

Social Environment?
Alter interdependent social system

Emotional (
hurt, anger, sadness
Explore affective disclosure

Client's efforts or actions towards others?
Skills for Interventions:
in using a specific intervention (supervision?)
-Knowledge of appropriate uses
of a specific intervention (empty chair?)
-Knowledge of typical responses to that type of intervention
(typical v. atypical)
-Observational skills
related to the client's response to the intervention (how do you know?)
Terminating by degree - devote as much time to termination as you did to rapport!
Celebrate Progress!
Be aware of YOUR feelings...
-Use Helpful words of direction
-Discuss multicultural factors
-Physical space considerations
-Self-awareness is KEY!
-EXPLAIN the counseling process!
-Consider culture in context and oppressive factors
-Set some basic goals first!
-Demonstrate understanding!
-Remind clients there may be a 'lull' before they attain a goal
-Plan for success early on!
-Take it as it comes... it's hard to get rid of old ways!
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Rana was severely depressed when she went for her first counseling session. She felt hopeless about her marriage. She stated that her husband, Omar, was a good provider but complained that he was emotionally dry and unaffectionate. She said that he always had to be “doing something, listening to something, watching something,” never able to just sit and talk quietly or take a walk, or just be with her without some sort of diversion. When Omar came for a session and this issue was discussed, he was confident about his definition of love. To him love meant providing food, shelter, and clothing, being sexually intimate with one’s spouse, and having kids. He protested his wife’s definition of love as being too “touchy-feely and childish.” When Rana asked him to read a book about marriage in Islam, he refused. He considered himself “knowledgeable enough” and considered her request as being demanding. Omar pushed Rana away each time she tried to find or create compatibility in their vision of love and marriage. This made her feel unwanted and disregarded as a woman and a wife.
Ali and Heba sought counseling because both of them felt miserable and sad. The love and enjoyment they had experienced when they first married had seemed to somehow gradually fade away. Ali complained that he felt a lot of resentment toward Heba and that she got angry with him often. Heba stated that her anger was due to Ali blaming her often for things that she felt were a result of his own disorganization and mismanagement of his time. They discussed in their counseling session the example of Ali promising to drive Heba to a halaqa (study circle) on a particular day and at a specified time. Ali would wait until the very last minute to leave, conveying in many small ways to Heba that she was inconveniencing him and preventing him from taking care of things like making phone calls or catching up on replying to his emails. This dynamic of Ali blaming Heba and Heba getting angry often had started to dominate their relationship.
Sarah was a young woman who came for counseling due to obsessive thoughts. She would list in her mind what she had to do each day, over and over again. She felt that this problem was ruining her life as she found it difficult to focus while at her college classes and felt anxious most of the time. She never participated in class and avoided close friendships as she didn’t want anyone to find out about her problem. She did not know where this problem came from or how to deal with it. The more she tried to just stop the listing habit, the stronger it seemed to become. She was miserable and desperate to find relief and live her life without the obsessiveness and the anxiety.
-Acknowledge emotionality
- Termination due to unsuccessful counseling: consider who initiated and how to most appropriately handle (i.e.: referral acknowledge ethical/ personal issues).
- Referral?
5 creative strategies to work towards termination with a client...
Role Play: Elizabeth
Role Plays: Anya & Mary
Role Play: Ms. Becker
Full transcript