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Theories of Oral Language Development

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Brittany Lustic

on 27 October 2013

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Transcript of Theories of Oral Language Development

Theories on Oral Language Development
by Brittany Lustic
Oral Language Development
Theories of Language Development
Stages of Oral Language Development
Sign Language Development
similar to oral development in hearing peers:
crying and gesturing
2 sign phrases develop
begin to clearly communicate ideas and feelings
longer and more complex sentences appear around 5 or 6 years of age
visually oriented
90% of deaf children are born from hearing parents
not all parents can or choose to sign with their child
( Bonvillian, J D; Orlansky, M D; Novack, L L, 1983)
Transformational Grammar
- based on Noam Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device
-"set of rules that human beings unconsciously know and use" (Diaz-Rico, 2010, 53).
-internalized rules that help a person make sense of the new language
Krashen's Monitor Model
- "monitor, or internal editing device, gradually acquires and applies a sense of correct language usage" (Diaz-RIco & Weed, 2010, 54).
-Hypotheses:
Acquisition Learning Hypothesis
Natural Order Hypothesis
Monitor Hypothesis
Input Hypothesis
Affective Filter Hypothesis
(Diaz-Rio & Weed, 2010)
Implications for Teaching
Preproduction stage
A child is exposed to language inside the womb (Diaz-Rio & Weed, 2010).
As they get older, they are exposed to language through their interaction with adults.
They use gestures and crying to communicate needs.
Early Production stage
When they become one or two, they begin to use some words to communicate.
Speech Emergence stage
By preschool, they are using oral language to interact with their peers and adults.
Intermediate fluency
By grade school, they begin to develop reading and writing skills as well.
(Diaz-Rio & Weed, 2010)
Factors that Influence Instruction
Psychological Factors
Cummins' Theories of Bilingualism and Cognition
- primary language can support and develop second language learning
- common underlying proficiency (CUP)
-Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
-Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
(Diaz-Rio & Weed, 2010)
Sociocultural Factors
1. Background Factors
students knowledge of 2nd language
proficiency in 2nd language
likes/dislikes
assessments tools
2. Social-emotional factors
Self-esteem
Motivation
Attitude
Anxiety level
3. Cognitive Factors
cognitive style
learning style
learning strategies

(Diaz-Rico & Weed, 2010)
1. Family's acculturation

2. Family's use of first and second language

3. Family values versus School values

(Diaz-Rico & Weed, 2010)
Communicative Competence
- knows when, where, and how to use language appropriately
- allows the person to "convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings interpersonally within specific contexts" (Diaz-Rio & Weed, 2010, 58)
-components:
grammatical competence
sociolinguistic competence
discourse competence
strategic competence
(Diaz-Rio & Weed, 2010)
Social Context for Language Learning
- based on Lev Vygotsky's emphasis on social interaction and language development
- sociocultural background plays a role in the development of language
(Diaz-Rio & Weed, 2010)
Discourse Theory
-face to face interaction is essential for language development
-the more the person talks, the more others will talk the person providing more opportunities for language practice

(Diaz-Rio & Weed, 2010)

Transformational Grammar
- based on Noam Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device
-"set of rules that human beings unconsciously know and use" (Diaz-Rico, 2010, 53).
-internalized rules that help a person make sense of the new language
Meaning-Centered versus "Bottom-Up"
Meaning Centered
- constructivist view
-top-down approach
-"actively seeking meaning" in text and oral language
(Diaz-Rio & Weed, 2010, 62).

Bottom- Up
- emphasis on letter sound relationship
-learning to decode text
-meaning comes later
(Diaz-Rio & Weed, 2010)

Semiotics
- "use signs to make meaning"
symbols
icons
indexes
(Diaz-Rio & Weed, 2010)
Culturally responsive literature and the development of oral language:
Teachers should be aware of language development milestones and developmentally appropriate activities to support oral language development.
Using a culturally diverse text, the teacher can...
discuss vocabulary
compare and contrast cultures
rhyme, identify syllables, or identify initial sound within the texts
Provide opportunities for the children to talk and share about similarities and differences of their cultures
Create a space with multicultural dress and items for social play time
(Diaz-Rio & Wood, 2010)
Works Cited
Bonvillian, J., Orlansky, M., Novack, L. (1983). Developmental milestones: sign language acquisition and motor development. JSTOR: Child Development, Vol. 54, No. 6, pp. 1435-1445.

Diaz-Rico, L. T., & Weed, K. Z. (2010). The crosscultural, language, and academic development handbook: A complete K–12 reference guide (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
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