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Silpa Thomas

on 15 December 2013

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Transcript of Motivation

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Job Design Theories
By Joe Brenon
Think about it...
Why do YOU use Facebook, twitter or other sources of media?
Help you feel more connected with others
Enjoy looking at photos
Interacting through “likes” “Comments” and “pokes”
Make you feel good about someone liking, posting or tagging you in something?
**Shows our social support and connection importance!

So.. What does this all mean?
In the workplace, employees are at different stages of this hierarchy
Not ONE thing can motivate ALL employees

Humans are motivated first by lower-order needs
Once these are satisfied, higher-order needs are driven as motivators of behavior
This theory was shaped during the 1950s and 1960s
However, it has lost some of its credibility due to a lack of research and empirical support (HARD TO TEST)

Expectancy Theory in the Workplace
In this article this theory can be seen in recruitment, interviews, and employee performance
Recruitment: success is based on the recruiter's ability to find well-qualified and promotable candidates
Interviews: can be seen in both the interviewer and the interviewee
Performance: Level of work is based off of the employer's response.
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Model
Recent Findings in Motivation
What is Motivation?
“A force that drives people to behave in a way that energizes, directs, and sustains their work behavior” (229- Understanding the workplace)

This topic has drawn the most interest and attention from scientists and practitioners
Two-Factor Theory
Employers often assume satisfaction only comes from monetary pay
They should eliminate the things in the workplace that annoy workers
Also need to implement motivators like stating achievements, give opportunity for growth

Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Model
The task itself is the key factor in motivation
What a job should be like
What emotions those characteristics arise
The outcomes of those emotions
What Motivates You?
Lose the “BUT”
When a manager or supervisor is celebrating a win and success to an employee, that should be the ultimate priority at hand
Adding a “but” negates the win and can have a negative effect

Intrinsic motivation: Engaging in a behavior because it is personally rewarding, meaningful
Extrinsic motivation: Perform in a behavior to earn a tangible reward or avoid a punishment
Teacher, Academia, Theater, Ombudsman, Non-for-Profit,
Nurse, Lawyer, Doctor, CEO, Engineer

Blend together: could be a combination of both that motivate you to be excited and want to do the job well.
This depends on your interests and passions

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic
Interesting Video on Motivation
This video helps us better understand what motivates us and why
“The worker’s today aren’t willing to put out the extra effort that is required to do a nice job”
“Everybody wants something for nothing-they all want the big pay, nice benefits…but they don’t want to work hard for any of those things”
“… Most of my workers are pretty competent; they just [take] shortcuts…they just aren’t motivated

Importance of Motivation
Two-Factor Theory
Is Maslow Wrong?

Belongingness is the driving force of human behavior
, not a third tier activity. The system of human needs from bottom to top, shelter, safety, sex, leadership, community, competence and trust, are
dependent on our ability to connect with others
. Belonging to a community provides the sense of security and agency that
makes our brains happy and helps keep us safe

We are all driven to satisfy these needs through our behaviors

New Perspective
Hierarchy of Small Business Needs (lower-needs to higher-needs)
5. Paying customers

4. Trusted people to work with you
3. Cash to pay for all of it
2. Defendable competitive position
1. Feeling happily successful

Maslow “Rewired”
Research Study:
Correctional Officer Needs
Relatively attainable to achieve:
1. Physiological
2. Safety
3. Love or Belongingness

Relatively difficult to provide:
1. Esteem
2. Self-actualization

ERG (Existence-Relatedness-Growth)
He focused on states of need satisfaction and desire
Categorized into three simpler and broader needs

Alderfer’s ERG Theory:Modified Maslow
Differences between Maslow and Alderfer
Aldefer believed that several needs can be in existence at the same time
“Frustration-Regression Hypothesis” suggests that if a person is frustrated at a ‘higher level need,’ one will concentrate on a ‘lower need’
In other words, one should maintain excellence until we are able to achieve our higher needs

Two-Factor Theory
Does not specify if any hygienes or motivators are more influential than others to satisfaction
Assumes a correlation between job satisfaction and productivity

Research Study
A study was conducted on top managers and frontline employee's self-esteem in regards to Alderfer's ERG Theory
The GROWTH need was a major motivator on TOP MANAGERS self-esteem (not relatedness or existence)
The RELATEDNESS and EXISTENCE needs were significant motivators when it came to FRONTLINE EMPLOYEES self-esteem
Hygiene factors versus motivating factors
Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites
Two Steps: eliminate hygiene factors, implement motivating factors
Motivated Potential Score (MPS)
Use a numerical scale
Knowledge and skill
Growth-need strength
Job context satisfaction

Dr. Robert Lawrence of University of North Texas did a study in 2001 using MPS to determine job satisfaction
Community Music School faculty filled out a questionnaire on their perceptions of their job relating to the 5 job characteristics

MPS numerical scores were received, and used to judge if these faculty are satisfied with their jobs
Core job dimensions: Dealing with others (task significance) and autonomy received the highest scores
Psychological states: experienced responsibility
Job Characteristics Model
High motivation comes from experiencing the 3 emotional states
It’s initially the way a job task is that leads to the emotional states and then the outcomes
Need to implement the core job dimensions
Can be used to assess where people have issues in their job, where changes need to be made

Motivation through Goal Setting (Locke, 1996)
Goal setting is most effective when there is feedback showing progress in relation to the goal
Goal setting (along with self-efficacy) mediates the effect of knowledge of past performances on the current task
Goals affect the direction of action, the amount of effort exerted, and persistence of effort
Goals stimulate high quality planning
Goals serve as standards for self-satisfaction

Other Research
Carol Kleiman of the Chicago Tribune wrote in 2004 an article, “Supervisors vital to job satisfaction”
“In a recent study of 150 executives nationwide by Messmer's firm, 43 percent of those surveyed reported that how you get along with your manager--and what your manager thinks of you--are the chief factors leading to job satisfaction. And your success.”
Connects to the feedback job characteristic, recognition and relationships
From personal experience, I had a horrible boss when I worked at a local park directing sport activities versus working at McDonald’s where I had a great relationship and really respected my boss.

Main Findings in the last 30 years:
The more difficult the goal, the greater the achievement
The more specific the goal, the more precisely performance is regulated
Commitment to goals is critical when goals are specific and difficult
Commitment comes when the individual is convinced the goal is important and attainable
A recent theory based on research
Goal Setting Theory
"Use clear, challenging goals, and commit yourself to achieving them. Provide feedback on goal performance. Take into consideration the complexity of the task. If you follow these simple rules, your goal setting process will be much more successful, and your overall performance will improve"

This is acknowledged as one of the most useful and valid motivation theories in I/O Psychology
Goal Setting Theory
Goal Setting Theory: Feedback
1. People tend to perform better with difficult/ specific tasks

2. Improved performance occurs when people are committed to the goal/task

3. Feedback affects the the performance
Adam's Equity Theory
Cognitive Theories
Classroom Applications of Cognitive Theories of Motivation
In this study, students explain their school experiences, which are then viewed in terms of expectancy theory, goal theory, etc.
The same is done for teachers' classroom behaviors.
Suggestions are then made to the teachers based on the findings.
Equity Theory
1. People strive to maintain a state of equity

2. When inequity is perceived, a state of tension results

3. When faced with this tension, people are motivated to reduce the tension

4. The greater the magnitude of the perceived inequity, the greater the motivation to act to reduce the tension
Expectancy Theory
People's behaviors result from conscious choices, these choices are then evaluated in terms of Valence, Instrumentality, and Expectancy.
Valence: emotional direction employees hold toward rewards/outcomes
Instrumentality: perception employees have on whether they get the desired outcome
Expectancy: employees have different levels of expectations and confidence about their capabilities
Goal Setting Theory
1. Goals direct our attention to a particular task

2. Goals mobilize on task effort

3. Goals enable us to be persistent as we strive toward their attainment

4. Goals help us facilitate strategies that can be used at a higher cognitive level to move toward their attainment


McClelland's Motivational Needs Theory
Need for Achievement
Strong need to set and accomplish goals
Likes to work alone
Likes to recieve regular feedback on their progress and achievements
Takes calculated risks to achieve goals
Personality Trait Characterized by:
Need for Affiliation
Intrinsic Motivation + Extrinsic Motivation
Dealing with
N ach Employees
Best at
Difficult Issues
Working Alone
Respond well to feedback
Need for Power
Personality Trait Characterized by:
Want to control and influence others
Likes to win arguments
Enjoys competition and winning
Enjoys Status and Recognition
Best suited for:
Negotiation situations where others must be convinced on an idea
Positions of control
Biggest Influence
Likes to belong to the group
Likes to be liked and often appeases with the group
Favors collaboration over competition
Doesn't like high risk or uncertainty
High N aff people:
work best with others
w/o Risk and Uncertainty
Personal feedback
Private Praise

Equity Theory
Relational satisfaction when compared to other workers

Expectancy Theory
People's behaviors are motivated by what they believe will result from that particular behavior

Goal Setting Theory
Setting S.M.A.R.T. goals
Institutional or Personal
Determining Dominant Drivers
Thematic Apperception Test
Picture Story Exercise
Implicit Motives
Leadership Motive Pattern
McClelland and Boyatzis, 1982
TAT administered to 237 AT&T managers
Scores compared with level achieved on corporate ladder 16 years later
Successful managers:
above average N-pow scores
N-pow higher than N-aff
all stories contained action inhibition
aka self-control
Managerial success not associated with N-ach
LMP doesn't apply to Techies
Cornelius and Lane, 1984
PSE used on Center Managers and Center Directors
Repeated 2 months later
(z score for N-aff)-(z score N-pow)=LMP score
no relationship between LMP and N-ach
#words and N-pow highly correlated (r=.53)
LMP correlated with size of the center
High N-ach associated with managerial success at lower levels of management jobs
Difference between technical and nontechnical jobs
Promotions correlated with verbal fluency (technical skill)
Correlation > Predictability
41% female managers
behavioral expression of N-pow different by gender
No depiction between Technical and Non-technical

by alexander sokolof
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