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Transcript of Vietnam War
Truman - 33rd President
gave financial and military aid to the French who were fighting in Vietnam
policy of containment (not wanting Vietnam to fall to communism) Eisenhower - 34th President
He believed this wasn't the U.S. war and it wasn't right for the U.S. to be a part of it.
He justified the aid to the Vietnam War through the Domino Theory. (If one country fell they all would). Kennedy - 35th President
He tripled the aid sent to Vietnam and he increased the number advisors over there.
He and his adminstration supported the overthrow of Ngo Dinh Diem.
He sent 100 special troops to Vietnam that were trained for guerilla warfare. There were several events that played a role in the escalation of American Involvement in the Vietnam War. In the beginning the only involvement was aid to the French to prevent the spread of communism. During the Kennedy Administration a little escalation occurred. At this time he had sent a team to report on the conditions of the war in Vietnam. The report that came back was known as the "White Papers". This called for a huge increase in aid. Some of his other advisors wanted to get the U.S. out of the war completely. Kennedy ended up escalating U.S. involvement by sending more advisors and machinery, but there was not an increase in troops. After Kennedy was assassinated and Lyndon B. Johnson took office the large escalation of the U.S. involvement took place. The large event that caused the escalation was the attacks in the Gulf of Tonkin. The attack was on the U.S.S. Maddox and the C. Turner Joy in International Waters on August 2, 1964. A second attacked was said to have happend on August 4th but that has been highly disputed. The result of these attacks was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. This resolution was passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate and it gave Johnson the power to repel attack against U.S. forces and against further aggression without a declaration of war. From here on out the U.S. involvement continued to escalate up to the point where there were over 500,000 U.S. personnel involved.
North Vietnam Leaders Ho Chi Minh
He led the Democrat Republic of Vietnam.
He founded the Indochina Communist Party
He declared the country's freedom from France
He led the Vietnam War against France and the U.S. up until his death
He found the Indochina Communist Party
He served under Ho in the Vietnam's Central Committee
He formed the Underground Communist Organization in South Korea
After Ho's death he became the leader of North Korea
Tran Van Tra
He was the deputy commander in the Communist Military
During the Tet Offensive, he was the leader of the attack on Saigon
He was removed from the Communist party after he offended officials with his publishing on the account of the war
Le Duc Tho
He was imprisoned by the French for 10 years
He served as a Senior Communist Official
He directed the Viet Cong military efforts in South Vietnam
Along with Henry Kissinger is negatiated a cease-fire agreement Vo Nguyen Giap
He led the forces the liberated Vietnam for French rule
He fought in the Vietnam War and worked to unify Vietnam into a communist nation
After Vietnam was unified he became the minister of defense and then deputy prime minister South Vietnam leaders Johnson - 36th President
He became president after the assassination of JFK.
After the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution LBJ was granted the power to repel against any further attack against American forces.
He then steadily increased the involvement of the U.S.'s personnel in Vietnam and he also began bombing North Vietnam.
After his popularity plummeted he announced that he would run for re-election and that he would stop the bombing in the North as of November 1, 1968
Nixon - 37th President
He carried out "Vietnamization" which withdrew American troops from the war.
Throught this time though the war expanded to Cambodia and Laos and some American troops were still on the gournd and aid was provided wo the war effort.
During his second term all of the American troops were removed.
He resigned from office due to the Watergate Scandal Ford - 38th President
He became president after the resignation of Nixon.
He oversaw the final withdraw of all troops and the evacuation of some of the Vietnamese citizens.
He announced the ending of the Vietnam Era on May 7, 1975.
Duong Van Minh
Under Diem he led the South Vietnamese army
After Diem was murdered he was the leader of South Vietnam for two months.
He was later leader of South Vietnam for a short time right before it became communist Ngo Dinh Diem
Between 1954 and 1963 he led South Vietnam and refused to go communist
He was overthrown and killed by his generals
He imprisoned and executed many buddhists while he ruled. Ngo Dinh Nhu
He was the chief adviosor of Diem his older brother.
He helped run Can Lao - his brother's secret political movement
He was killed along with his brother
South Vietnam Leaders Continued Nyugen Khanh
South Vietnamese general
Overthrew Minh in 1964
He was then Prime Minister of South Vietnam for a year and then he was exiled to France by Ky. Nyugen Van Thieu
He was part of the communist forces for a short time and the he switched to the Vietnamese army.
Under Ky he served as the chief of state
He was president of South Vietnam until the fall of its capital Saigon.
He left the country before its fall to communism.
Key American MIlitary Leaders William C. Westmoreland
Commander of the U.S. forces between 1964-1968.
He was very optimistic about the American war efforts.
Later in his career he served as the Army's Chief of Staff.
General of the Vietnam War
He commanded the military advisory mission to South Vietnam
He supported South Korean leader Diem
He was was very optimistic about the U.S. winning the war.
Key American Diplomats Henry Kissinger
He helped develop the "Vietnamization" policy and the removal of all U.S. troops from Vietnam.
He helped negotiate the Paris Peace Agreement and he received a Noble Prize for this.
After this he served as Nixon's secretary of state.
Creighton Williams Abrams
He took command after Westermore of the Military Assisstence Command in Vietnam.
He performed small unit operations to try and reduce American casualties.
He was responsible for implementing "Vietnamization".
He was successful in helping with the withdraw of U.S. troops from Vietnam.
He was in retirement from the military when JFK called him to be the chairmen of the Joint Chief of Staffs.
He was then a U.S. ambassador to South Korea.
After this he was a special consultant to President Johnson.
Lt. William Calley
Found guilty for his role in the My Lai Massacres
In these massacres many Vietnamese civilians were killed.
He was sentenced to life in prison, but after an appeal he was released in 1974. Fredrick Weyand
He commanded the 25th infantry and was head of the II Field Force.
He then spent some time with Paris Peace negotiations.
He then returned as deputy commander of Military Assistance Command.
He then replaced Abrams and became commander of Military Assistance Command.
In this position he presided over the withdraw of American troops form Vietnam. War Powers Act The War Powers Act resulted from the Vietnam War. The act was passed by Congress on November 7, 1973 and this was over President Nixon's veto. The purpose of the act was to prevent the United State's involvement in future conflicts like the one in Vietnam. This act limited the power of the executive branch to put U.S. forces overseas. From then on the executive branch had to report to Congress before it entered another country's conflict. This prevented the U.S. president from waging war without approval of Congress. Gulf ot Tonkin Incident Gulf of Tonkin Resolution The Gulf of Tonkin Incident occured on August 2nd and 4th of 1964. The North Vietamese fired torpedos had two U.S. ships in International Waters. The ships were of the U.S. Seventh fleet and were the U.S.S. Maddox and the C. Turner Joy. This incident led to the resolution that escalated the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was in response to the inciedent in the Gulf of Tokin. The resolution stated that the president would be supported in repelling all forces against the U.S. and to stop further aggression. It also stated that the U.S. wanted World peace and peace and security in Southeast Asia was needed. On August 7th the resolution was passed by both the House of Representatives and the Senate. This resolution gave the authority for an increase in the U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War. Timeline 1945 September 2, 1945 Minh declares Vietnam independent and names in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam 1950 July 1950 The U.S. gives France aid to help with them fight in Vietnam 1955 October 26, 1955 South Korea makes itself the Republic of Vietnam 1964 August 2 & 4, 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident
August 7, 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1965 March 2, 1965 Operation Rolling Thunder Aerial Boming of North Vietnam
March 8, 1965 For the first time U.S. combat troops arrive in Vietnam 1968 January 30, 1968 Tet Offensive launched against the North Vietnamese and Viet Cog
March 16, 1968 Mai Lai Massacre - hundreds of Vietnamese civilians were killed by U.S. soldiers. 1969 July 1969 President Nixon orders the first U.S. troops withdrawals 1973 January 27, 1973 the Paris Peace Agreement was signed creating a cease-fire.
March 29, 1973 all of the U.S. troops have been withdrew from Vietnam. Ellsworth Bunker
1967-1973 Ambassador to South Vietnam
He was strong supporter of the U.S. war efforts
He liked the efforts of LBJ and Nixon
After the war he worked on Panama Canal Peach Treaties
John Foster Dulles
He was very anti-communist
Eisenhower's Secretary of State
He supported the French at war in Indochina Dean Rusk
Secretary of State under JFK and LBJ
Wanted military action in Vietnam
Supported the war
Anti-war protests targeted him