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Greece and Rome WHAP
Transcript of Greece and Rome WHAP
Geo- Italy, Alps to the N. for protection, easy access to Africa and Southwest Asia.
Social- Patricians (land-owning nobles), Plebeians (all other free men) and slaves (helots)
Pater familias- eldest male in family had power. Women had influence (own property... that's it).
Pol- representative republic. More stable than Greek democracy. Most similar to US gov't.
Senate- patrician families
Assembly- both Ps
Consuls- 2, held veto power.
(we didn't invent it)
First democracy among its citizens (not women or slaves).
Grew from monarchy --> aristocracy --> Democracy with Draco and Solon.
Had free time to devote to art and philosophy b/c of slave labor.
Greek Geography (I)
Socio-Political Structure and Citizenship
City-states (b/c of geo), each known as a polis, shared common culture and identity.
Shared common language and traditions, but independent.
2 imp. city-states: Athens and Sparta
Athens the pol'l, commercial, and cultural center of Greek civ.
Sparta very militaristic, living very structured lived.
Each polis had 3 groups
Citizens- adult males in business.
Free people- no pol'l rights
Noncitizens- slaves (1/3 of people in Athens)
After Punic Wars, restless Rome.
Harty will explain, but basically Roman gov't becomes too weak as Republic, and leads to first triumvirate of Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar.
Julius becomes emperor for life, but then gets stabbed a bunch of times.
--> New crew! Octavius, Marc Antony, and Lepidus, but eventually all power went to Octavius who then went by Augustus Caesar.
Mountainous terrain, not much land for agriculture.
Natural harbors and mild weather, led to commercial activity through the Med. Sea
Exchanged wine and olive products for grain. Eventually used Lydian system of coin money to purchase grain.
B/c of limited geographical area, Greece always looking to estbl colonies abroad, which led to a strong military and sophisticated communication, transportation, and governance.
Three different wars. All against city-state of Carthage.
Round 1: 264-241 bce. Rome won Sicily
Round 2: 218-201 bce. Hannibal from Carthage to' up Italy with a surprise attack. Eventually lost to Rome.
Round 3: 149-146 bce. Rome burns Carthage and ruins their land.
Fun fact: through all this war with Carthage and others, Roman culture was spread.
Polytheistic, but gods possessed human failings- got angry, took sides, gossiped. Still a part of western culture today.
Plus, the Romans totes stole all the gods and renamed them. Fun fact.
Greece and Rome
Persian Wars 499-449 bce
Greek city-states united to fight Persia
Much of Athens destroyed, but they won imp. battles at Marathon and Salamis
Led to golden age
Golden Age of Pericles 480-404 bce
Pericles estbl dem for all adult males.
Estbl Delian League- a city-states alliance (and taxes)
Philosophy and arts flourished.
Phil: Believed in rational though and observation
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
Drama: comedies and tragedies
Math and science with Pythagoras, Archimedes and Hippocrates.
Will later influence European Renaissance and Enlightenment. Nbd.
Alexander the Great
Mainland Greece severely weakened after Peloponnesian War (431-404 bce).
Boom! Philip III of Macedon invades and conquers.
Son, Alexander the Great takes over.
Fun fact- taught by Aristotle!
Alexander conquered Persian Empire all the way to India.
This empire led to a diffused Greek culture- Hellenism.
When Alex dies at 33 --> Roman conquest.
Pax Romana: Roman Peace
Begins under Augustus Caesar
Rome becomes capital of western world.
Estbl rule of law, common coinage, civil service, and secure travel of merchants.
Though uniform laws, cultural groups like Hebrews/Egyptians maintained their cultural identity.
Expanded largest territory.
Architecture: dome and arches (Coliseum, Pantheon), aqueducts.
Ptolemy advances astronomy (but was wrong)
Grew out of Judaism.
Initially was tolerated, but after Jewish resistance to gov't, led to discrimination b/c seen as threat to power.
Emp. Nero persecutes, killing in Coliseum
Later, Emp. Constantine passed the Edict of Milan in 313 CE legalizing Christianity
391 CE becomes official religion of Rome