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Energy Sources

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Beth Anne Parra

on 28 January 2014

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Transcript of Energy Sources

Concentrated Solar Power
PROS
renewable
green (non polluting)
low operational costs
utilizes thermal storage
high efficiency
CONS
intermittent energy source
low energy density
higher cost than solar PV
high construction and installation costs
competition against cheap natural gas
take up a considerable amount of space
aesthetics
location dependent
create pollution in their manufacturing
Energy Sources
Wind Power
concentrating solar collectors that focus the sunlight, amplifying its intensity, to achieve very high temperatures that can be converted to steam to drive an otherwise conventional thermal power plant or heat engine
on a clear day 1000 W per square meter can be produced
10-20% of sun's energy is converted to usable power
Geothermal Power
The United States produces more wattage of electricity with geothermal than any other nation
heat pump, an air delivery system, and a heat exchanger-a system of pipes
A conventional high efficiency gas forced air heating system can be in the range of 92-94% efficient
Tidal Power
these are purely mechanical device, with no boiling fluids or heat transfer required, efficiencies are quite high, generally in the neighborhood of 80%
produces energy during tidal surges, which occurs during 10 hours of the day
wave energy, tidal energy, ocean thermal energy
Solar Photovoltaics
low efficiency between 17-40%
silicon creates an electric charge when exposed to sunlight by absorbing solar photons
Bibliography
Brain, Marshall, and Robert Lamb. "How Nuclear Power Woks." . How Stuff Works. Web. 25 Jan 2014. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power4.htm>.
"Coal." Clean Energy. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 25 Sep 2013. Web. 25 Jan 2014. <http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/affect/coal.html>.
CSPU FUTURE PLANS ---. (n.d.). Concentrating Solar Power Utility, The WorldÂ’s Most Efficient Solar Electric Technology. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from http://concentratingsolarpowerutility.com/
"Ethanol: Pros and Cons." . Green The Future. Web. 25 Jan 2014. <http://greenthefuture.com/ETHANOL_PROSCONS.html>.
"Four Major Energy Sources: Their Pros and Cons." . U.S. Green Chamber, 11 Apr 2012. Web. 25 Jan 2014. <http://www.usgreenchamber.com/news/types-of-clean-energy-sources/>.
Geothermal Pros and Cons. (n.d.). Geothermal Pros and Cons. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from http://geothermalprosandcons.net/
Green, D. (2011, December 29). Solar energy pros and cons: Solar thermal systems. Renewable Green Energy Power RSS. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from http://www.renewablegreenenergypower.com/solar-energy-pros-and-cons-solar-thermal-systems/
How Efficient Is Geothermal, What's The Cost? Go Geothermal Now. (n.d.). How Efficient Is Geothermal, What's The Cost? Go Geothermal Now. Retrieved January 22, 2014, from http://www.earthenergyservices.com/geothermal-energy-faq.php
"Hydropower." . Renewable Energy World, 25 Jan 2014. Web. 25 Jan 2014. <http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/tech/hydropower>.
Lund, Kelly. "Hydroelectric Power." . Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, 08 Oct 2013. Web. 25 Jan 2014. <http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/eng4431>.
Maelhum, Mathias Aarre. "Wave Energy Pros and Cons." . Energy Informative, 05 May 2013. Web. 25 Jan 2014. <http://energyinformative.org/wave-energy-pros-and-cons/>.
Maehlum, M. (2013, December 6). Wind Energy Pros and Cons. Energy Informative. Retrieved January 24, 2014, from http://energyinformative.org/wind-energy-pros-and-cons/
Siegel, R. (2012, April 12). Solar Photovoltaics: Pros and Cons. Triple Pundit RSS. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from http://www.triplepundit.com/2012/04/solar-photovoltaics-pros-cons/
Siegel, R. (2012, May 21). Solar Thermal: Pros and Cons – Part 2: Concentrating Solar Power. Triple Pundit RSS. Retrieved January 24, 2014, from http://www.triplepundit.com/2012/05/solar-thermal-pros-cons-part-2-concentrating-solar-power/
Siegel, R. (2012, June 12). Tidal Power: Pros and Cons. Triple Pundit RSS. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from http://www.triplepundit.com/2012/06/tidal-power-pros-cons/
"The Energy We Don't Use." Energy Efficieny. Fresh Energy, 06 Jan 2012. Web. 25 Jan 2014. <http://fresh-energy.org/2012/01/the-energy-we-dont-use/>.
TradeWind Energy. (n.d.). TradeWind Energy. Retrieved January 23, 2014, from http://www.tradewindenergy.com/windlibrary_sub.aspx?id=136
Woollacott, Emma. "Air ForceUps Wave Power Efficiency to 99 Percent ." . TG Daily, 09 Feb 2011. Web. 25 Jan 2014. <http://www.tgdaily.com/sustainability-features/54018-air-force-ups-wave-power-efficiency-to-99-percent>.
"11 Facts About Nuclear Energy." . DoSomething.org. Web. 25 Jan 2014. <http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-nuclear-energy>.
"Pros And Cons Of Thermal Power." Pros And Cons Of Thermal Power. The Iloveindia website, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/pros-and-cons-of-thermal-power-13991.html>.
"Science Focus Topic 7 Notes: Sources of Thermal Energy." Science Focus Topic 7 Notes: Sources of Thermal Energy. EDQUEST, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.edquest.ca/component/content/article/148>.
"Solar Energy Information." Solar Energy Science Project Topics: What are Solar Panels?. Make It Solar, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.makeitsolar.com/solar-energy-information/05-solar-panels.htm>.
"thermal energy." Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/thermal%20energy>.
"A New Power Source from the Earth: Turning geopressure into electricity." Geothermal Digest RSS. N.p., 4 Jan. 2010. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. <http://geothermaldigest.net/blog/2010/01/04/a-new-power-source-from-the-earth-turning-geopressure-into-electricity/>.
Esposito, Ariel, and Chad Augustine. "Recoverable Resource Estimate of Identified Onshore Geopressured Geothermal Energy in Texas and Louisiana." National Renewable Energy Laboratory. N.p., 24 Apr. 2012. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.nrel.gov/gis/pdfs/54999.pdf>.
"GEOTHERMAL ENERGY ASSOCIATION." Geothermal Basics Potential Use. GEA, n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. <http://www.geo-energy.org/potentialUse.aspx>.
"Helidyne." Helidyne. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. <http://www.helidynepower.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=120&Itemid=157>.



PROS
green energy source
great potential
renewable
growing resource
decreasing prices
low operational costs
domestic potential
CONS
wind is a fluctuating source and needs energy storage
expensive installation
threat to wildlife (970 million birds)
noise
aesthetics
energy is produced when the wind reaches speeds of 10 mph
the energy produced depends on the turbine's size and wind's speed
A one-megawatt wind turbine can generate between 2.4 million and 4 million kWh, providing energy for 240 to 400 homes
utility turbines range from 1.5 MW to 3.0 MW
30% efficient in terms of wind kinetic energy
PROS
enormous amount of geothermal energy deep within the Earth, which is quickly replenished
not susceptible to price inflation
green
the US government offers tax credits to those who use this source in their homes
relatively low costs
CONS
high construction prices
extreme drilling involved
maintenance of geothermal energy plants is hazardous and requires great caution
prone to earthquakes
geothermal sites have to be in regions where subsurface conditions are advantageous
PROS
CONS
PROS
green energy
renewable
available in most environments
improving technology
no moving parts
no noise or pollution
minimal maintenance
some government incentive
CONS
intermittent source
high cost
Requires inverter to produce AC current
requires storage for continuous use
exotic materials required for construction
requires a great amount of space
low energy intensity
fragile
aesthetic
Beth Anne Parra, Hannah Humphries,
Michael Ho, Casie Jones

Renewable
emission-free
reliable and constant
high efficiency
storm surge barrier
expensive construction
location specific
storage backup required
restricted access to open water
alters tidal level
disrupts tidal cycles
threat to wildlife
decreased salinity in water basins
Captures dirt, waste and pollution near the coast
Reduces kinetic energy in the ocean
PROS
green
renewable
enormous energy potential
reliable
area efficient
offshore power
CONS
environmental effects
economic effects
costs
threat to navigation
Wave Power
electricity generators are placed on the surface of the ocean
Air Force researchers have built one with 99% efficiency
The average efficiency is 80%
PROS
green
renewable
efficient
low maintenance costs
CONS
high initial cost
environmental effects
Hydroelectric Power
water released through a dam spins a turbine that activates a generator
90% efficient
Nuclear Power
PROS
little to no greenhouse gas emission
produces significantly more energy than fossil fuel alternatives
relatively low operating costs
CONS
uranium is nonrenewable
every 18-24 months, a plant must shut down to remove the spent uranium
radioactive waste
high building costs
health concerns
uses the process of nuclear fission
comes from uranium
91% efficient
PROS
abundant supply
relatively inexpensive
mature industry
CONS
nonrenewable
pollutes air, land, and water
environmental, social, health, a safety impacts of coal mining
mined, then burned at power plants
modern plants have efficiency of 37%
average efficiency is 25%
PROS
little greenhouse gas emission
renewable
usable by-products
biodegradable
CONS
using food for fuel
absorbs water and is corrosive making it difficult to ship through existing pipelines
reduced mpg
Ethanol
made from corn
22% efficient (34% less than gasoline)
Coal Energy
Oil
Oil is heated and divided into fractions, distilled, and extracted. Then it is subject to hydrotreatment, reducing aromatic content and removes impurities such as sulphur and nitrogen. After this, it is then sent to commercial plants to further refine it into other products
Modern car engines using oil (gasoline) as a fuel typically have around 25 to 30% efficiency
The US consumes the most oil, where daily consumption is past 19.5 million barrels
PROS
Abundance of Oil
Convenient Use, as most vehicles are produced to use oil as a fuel source
Moves vehicles the quickest and the most efficiently than any other fuel source
Easy to transport while in liquid form
Creates jobs for people to extract oil

CONS
Non-renewable
Emits high amounts of CO2 – about 20 lbs per 1 gal. of gasoline
Drilling offshore or inland can lead to spills
Endangers and destroys the local environment
Expensive to procure and to purchase
Potentially dangerous due to flammability
Average U.S. consumption between 20.5 to 21 million barrels each day
Cellulosic Ethanol
Costs more to produce in comparison to corn based ethanol (30 to 50 cents per gallon versus 3 cents per gallon), but costs much less to produce its biomass, as it does not need fertilizer or herbicides
Made from grass as opposed to corn
Cellulosic ethanol has a high efficiency rate of 85%
PROS
Greenhouse Gas Reduction
Cheap, non-food feedstocks
No crop displacement
Little need to adapt to current delivery infrastructure
Biodegradable

CONS
Few commercial plants
Government incentive driven, few private investors
Reduced miles-per-gallon – about 1.40 ethanol gallons equivalent to 1 gallon of gasoline
High enzyme price - $1.00 for enzymes per gallon, making initial fuel price $3.00 per gallon
Water absorption – possible contamination and shorter shelf and tank life
Lack of availability – about 2000 E85 stations are available, mostly in Midwest
Natural Gas
The average U.S home consumes about 665,720 gallons of natural gas annually
Overall percentage efficiency of natural gas is 90%
PROS
Contributes to 21% of the world’s energy production today, due to its widespread use
As it is a well established source of fuel, delivery infrastructure already
End use appliances are already widespread, which allow continued use of natural gas
Cleanest of available fossil fuels, and emits 45% and 30% less CO2 than coal and oil, respectively
Abundant supply available in the US – about 1.8 trillion barrels est. to be currently available
No waste, such as ash, has to be dealt with afterwards
Safe, as it is lighter than air (compared to the heavier propane)
Industries currently employ around 1.2 million people

CONS
Non-renewable fuel, and cannot be replenished for at least a millennia Non-renewable fuel, supply cannot be replaced for millennia
Inevitably emits CO2 when burned
Contents contain 80-95% methane, a potent greenhouse gas or GHG
Highly explosive and dangerous
Concentrated sources require long distance transportation
Extensive pipelines to transport over land
Liquefied form in tanker ships are potentially extremely dangerous
Use of natural gas competes for use for chemicals and fertilizers
Environmental risks with use of fracking – the fracturing of rock by liquid pressure
Environmental risks include earthquakes, use of large amounts of water, and possible accidental incorporation of toxins (i.e., arsenic)
Biofuels (Biomass into liquid fuel) / Biodiesel
Feedstocks are filtered, treated with a methanol and sulfuric acid mixture, and then refined to remove all catalysts and impurities still remaining
Biodiesel has an efficiency rate of 69%
Has the highest energy content – 120,000 BTUs (roughly 127 million Joules) of any alternative fuel
PROS
Production process can turn used oils, greases and fast into useable fueling products, thereby making obtaining source of fuel inexpensive
GHG Reduction - reduces harmful chemicals (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particle matter) by 20%, 11%, and 10%, respectively, making it well suited for marine and mining uses


CONS
Reduced Fuel Efficiency – The EPA has found that the use of B20 reduces overall fuel efficiency by about 1 to 2%
B100 and other biodiesel blends tend to be much more expensive than standard diesel, due to the result of rising feedstock prices and production problems of its producers
Lack of availability – About 1000 filling stations sell some variety of biodiesel, though the majority of them are in the Midwest, particularly in Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota
Extremely Combustible – Due to the chemicals used, the biodiesel production process is highly combustible.
Biomass Energy / Landfill Gas
Provides power for over one million homes and provides heat for another 737,000 homes across the United States
Contributes to nation's supply of natural gas and clean burning fuel for vehicles
Provides 14 billion kilowatt-hours of energy and 102 billion cu. feet of landfill gas for direct use by industry
Internal Combustion Engines using landfill gas operate with around 25 to 35% efficiency
PROS
Most of the waste that normally goes into landfill sites can be re-used
The fuel is cheap and obtainable
A reliable source of fuel, as there will always be waste
Current landfill sites can be excavated to use their contents as fuel

CONS
The public is still generally unconvinced that emissions from waste-to-energy plants are completely free from toxins
Waste-to-energy factories are expensive to build, as well as landfill sites themselves
PROS
Biodegradability – Any possible small spillage in the process of production will have a smaller environmental impact
Economic Benefits – Used greases and fats could generate sources of revenue, as they will be used in the production
Requires no engine modifications to use in diesel-powered vehicles
Could benefit third world countries by allowing them to sell high oil produce from their plantations (i.e., palm planting)
CONS
Biodiesel can gel in colder weather
Breakdowns – Biodiesels can clog filters due to the release of deposits from tank and pipe walls from its previous use
Poor Quality – Biodiesel as it currently stands cannot meet standard gasoline quality due to their inability to completely remove all impurities in water during the refining process
Thermal Energy
Bibliography Cont.
""Truthland" - Energy In Depth reveals the truth about "Gasland"." Natural Gas and the Environment. National Fuel Gas Company, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.nationalfuelgas.com/natural_gas_environment.aspx>.
"ABOUT THE BIODIESEL PROCESS." The Biodiesel Process. Biodiesel of Las Vegas, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.biodieseloflasvegas.com/biodiesel-process.aspx>.
"Biodiesel: Pros & Cons | GreenTheFuture.com." Biodiesel: Pros & Cons | GreenTheFuture.com. Green the Future, n.d. Web. 24 Jan. 2014. <http://greenthefuture.com/BIODIESEL_PROSCONS.html>.
Chandler, Nikki. "The Rise of Landfill Gas to Energy." Smart Energy Portal. Penton Media, 23 Jan. 2012. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://smartenergyportal.net/article/rise-landfill-gas-energy>.
"Fun facts about biodiesel fuel." Pasadena Weekly -. Southland Publishing, 11 May 2006. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.pasadenaweekly.com/cms/story/detail/?id=3407&IssueNum=19>.
"Gasoline and Diesel Engine Efficiency." Boost My Fuel. Boost My Fuel, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.boostmyfuel.com/pdf/efficiency.pdf>.
"How is the oil produced?." - Nynas. Lindetorpsvägen 7, Stockholm, Sweden, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.nynas.com/Segment/Base-oils-for-Lubricants-and-Greases/About-Nynas-in-lubricants-and-greases/How-is-the-oil-produced/>.
"Interesting energy facts." : Oil energy facts. Blogger, 21 Mar. 2008. Web. 24 Jan. 2014. <http://interestingenergyfacts.blogspot.com/2008/03/oil-facts.html>.
"Interesting energy facts." : Biomass energy facts. Blogger, 1 Apr. 2008. Web. 23 Jan. 2014. <http://interestingenergyfacts.blogspot.com/2008/04/biomass-energy-facts.html>.
Martin, Richard . "Biofuels as Alternative Sources of Energy." Biofuels Energy as an alternative energy source: Green Energy (Eu) Articles base. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.greenenergy-eu.com/Articles/bio-fuels-alternative-energy.html>.
"Natural Gas Facts." Spectra Energy. Spectra Energy Corp, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.spectraenergy.com/Natural-Gas-101/Natural-Gas-Facts/Fun-Facts-on-Natural-Gas/>.
"NaturalGas.org." NaturalGas.org. NaturalGas.org, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.naturalgas.org/naturalgas/processing_ng.asp>.
"Page Name | Area Name | US EPA." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.epa.gov/methane/lmop/basic-info/index.html>.
"Project Technology Options." United States Environmental Agency. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.epa.gov/lmop/documents/pdfs/pdh_chapter3.pdf>.
"Pros and Cons - Petroleum Energy RRR." Petroleum Energy RRR. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://palaeolimnologypetroleumrrr.weebly.com/pros-and-cons.html>.
"The Biofuels FAQs : The Facts About Biofuels: Ethanol from Cellulose." The Biofuels FAQs : The Facts About Biofuels: Ethanol from Cellulose. Energy Future Coalition, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.energyfuturecoalition.org/biofuels/fact_ethanol_cellulose.htm>.
"The Energy Story - Chapter 8: Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas." The Energy Story - Chapter 8: Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas. California Energy Commission, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html>.
"Waste-to-energy pros and cons." — Brightside. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.brightknowledge.org/knowledge-bank/geography-and-environment/features-and-resources/waste-to-energy-pros-and-cons>.

This is one example of thermal energy
Thermal energy is energy in the form of heat.
Thermal energy is used in many sources: chemical, electrical, mechanical, solar, wind, and fossil fuels.
Thermal energy is measured in joules or calories.
Thermal energy efficiency changes from source to source: the thermal energy efficiency for solar power might be different from the efficiency for wind power.
Pros
Thermal energy is used in numerous sources in which energy can be produced in different ways.
Thermal energy is naturally created in the production of other energies. Ex: In chemical energy wood or coal is burned and is therefore turned into thermal energy.
Cons
Some forms of thermal energy are not environmentally friendly, for example fossil fuels pollute the air with chemicals.
Thermal energy plays a role in decomposition when chemical energy is turned into thermal energy through body heat, but their can be a problem with waste management.
Geopressure Energy
An extension of geothermal energy.
Geopressure resources are deep reservoirs of high-pressured hot water that contain dissolved methane.
Production units starting at 250 kW, 300 gpm, 93% efficiency
The process is harnessing the kinetic energy of pressurized oil, gas and geothermal resources and converting the energy into electricity.
Pros
Helidyne's geopressure reduction generator (PRG) converts the hydraulic form of energy into useful, emission free electricity.
Three potential sources of energy: chemical, thermal, and mechanical.
Geopressure energy is a renewable power source.
Cons
The use of geopressure as an energy source can cause problems for the well operators because the intense pressure of the water and gas can have valve failures.
Geopressure energy uses gases and oils that could be leaked into the water source affecting the environment.
Natural gas
Hydrogen/Fuel Cell Energy
Hydrogen is a simple element and is mixed with other gases to produce hydrocarbons like gasoline, propane, natural gas, and methanol.
50%-60% efficiency for fuel cells in cars.
Pros
Hydrogen energy is a renewable resource and is mostly pollution free.
Hydrogen fuel cells in cars do not create any emissions, just water and heat.
Cons
In a regular car 62% of fuel cell energy is lost due to thermal energy.
Hydrogen is not easy to process because it is attached to other substances and has to be drawn out.
Potential Future Energy Sources
Antimatter
The same as normal matter, it is made up of antiparticles that have the same mass as ordinary matter but with opposite atomic properties: spin and charge. When the opposed particles meet, they obliterate each other and release tremendous amounts of energy.
Solar Energy from Space
Putting solar power satellites into orbit has advantages over regular solar power on Earth because there are no clouds covering them or any atmospheric gasses. Solar power in space does not lose any productivity at night.
Mining Volcanoes
Extract heat from the hot rocks that lie under and around volcanoes. By injecting water into cracks in the ground, steam might be created to power subterranean electricity turbines.
Bibliography Cont.
Flinn, Gallagher. "What's the energy efficiency ratio for hydrogen fuel cells?." HowStuffWorks. N.p., 20 Aug. 2012. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. <http://auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-efficiency/fuel-saving-devices/energy-efficiency-ratio-hydrogen-fuel-cell2.htm>.
"Hydrogen - an important element." Hydrogen - an important element. Keep Earth Beautiful, n.d. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. <http://www.keepbanderabeautiful.org/hydrogen.html>.
"Hydrogen Energy." Hydrogen Power and Fuel Cells. World.com, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2014. <http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/tech/hydrogen>.
Watson, Stephanie. "What are the pros and cons of hydrogen energy?." HowStuffWorks. HowStuffWorks.com, 25 Apr. 2011. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/pros-and-cons-of-hydrogen-energy.htm>.
McNicoll, Arion, and Matthew ponsford contributed to this article. "Solar lasers, ocean power and volcanoes: unusual energy sources of the future." CNN. Cable News Network, 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. <http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/13/tech/innovation/solar-lasers-ocean-power-energy/>.
Than, Ker. "Power of the Future: 10 Ways to Run the 21st Century." LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 5 May 2005. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. <http://www.livescience.com/11324-power-future-10-ways-run-21st-century.html>.
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