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ELL Support Services
Transcript of ELL Support Services
--student's speech and/or language is considered "unintelligible"--teachers, peers, etc. have difficulty understanding student's messages which can lead to negative psychosocial consequences (avoidance of speaking in the classroom, etc.)
--caregivers' request a mandatory speech-language assessment to be completed The SLP can help identify, treat or co-treat the following:
poor, inaccurate articulation--affecting participation in the classroom/intelligibility; the errors can't be explained by the student's primary language(s)
phonological delays or disorders--student's continued difficulty expressing speech sound patterns that can't be explained by the student's primary language(s)
language delays or disorders--student's continued difficulty expressing morphemes, syntax/grammar, semantics, vocabulary/lexical elements, and pragmatics (social skills); can't be explained by the student's primary language(s)
language or auditory processing disorders--student can hear speech/language but needs more time to decipher messages presented orally
fluency disorders--speech is characterized by audible or inaudible blocks, prolongations of speech sounds, or other elements associated with stuttering or cluttering Reasons for Speech-Language Pathology Referral Professionals Must Have "Cultural Competence" understand students' languages, even if they can't speak them
understand students' macro and microcultures
know how to work with translators/interpreters as well as caregivers
consider their own prejudices and biases against other cultures so these will not have an effect upon service delivery
(ASHA, 2011a; ASHA, 2011b) Assessments for ELLs must be: valid and reliable
incorporate the student's primary languages (without being a translated standardized test)
should be normed on the correct population, if standardized
allow for appropriate accommodations for ELLs
be dynamic--preassess (classroom based measure), instruct, post-test (did student learn new skill when directly instructed?)
use multiple measures
assess real classroom performance
student and peer assessment checklists (M. Condon, personal communication, October 16, 2012; ASHAc, 2012; Goldstein, 2011) During the Assessment Process, Gather the Following: student's age, gender, cultural background
family's values concerning education
student's ELD level
student's level of proficiency in native language(s)
caregivers' level(s) of proficiency in the native language(s) and in English
how long the student has been in the U.S.
what type/amount of classroom supports are provided? are these used reliably? are they useful?
feedback from a variety of professionals
various samples of written work for comparison
performance on classroom based assessments
(M. Condon, personal communication, October 16, 2012; Wright, 2010; Goldstein, 2011) The Support Service Team is not complete without help from: Social worker--case manager
Physical Therapist (PT)--as needed
Occupational Therapist (OT)--as needed
Secretary is often helpful
Special teachers (art, music, library, etc.) Language Difference vs. Language Delay/Disorder Criterion: to be diagnosed with a language delay or disorder, student must demonstrate impairment in both languages (not just English)
Language difference: phonologic, morphologic, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic differences are ok/show cultural diversity as part of the students' primary language; should not be treated (unless caregivers' demand elective services to reduce accent)
Example: bilingual Spanish/English speaker who rolls his/her "r's," or says "car blue" instead of "blue car"
Keep in mind that speaking ability doesn't always translate into perfect writing ability, even for non ELLs--explicit writing instruction is often necessary.
(Goldstein, 2011) Interviews--Links to Professional Organizations American Speech-Language- Hearing Association (governing body for SLPs)
PATTAN (resource for ER/IEP and other documents)
http://www.pattan.net/ (Goldstein, 2011)
Networking/Collaboration Professional School Counselor Confidentiality and Ethical Code What is said to a counselor remains confidential *So long as the client does not reveal that they are or will be hurt or someone else is being or will be hurt Counselors are bound by an ethical code and can be held liable in a court of law Autonomy
Fidelity ELLs are often identified when registering for school
Code of Ethics requires multicultural competency
Counselors work no differently with ELLs than with other students
provide or locate services to benefit the student
Collaborate with other professionals, parents, or third parties Counseling ELLs *Counselors DO NOT Diagnose* Teacher Assistance Teams May fulfill many roles of Counselor, though school psychologist's primary role is often testing School Psychologist ADHD
Assist in diagnosis of learning disabilities Capitalize on expertise of parents, ESL/bilingual specialists, administrators
Collaborate on goals, objectives and resources Student centered
Open to other perspectives
Commitment to cultural reciprocity
Suspending judgment ASK BEFORE YOU TEST! What will the student have access to with a formal diagnosis that they cannot have access to now? Do the formal tests take into consideration the culture and language of student? Getting Services for ELLs Student Referral Forms
DATA DATA DATA! Psychology - 1,737 total, 113 on ELLs, 18 primary focus on ELLs.
Counseling - 1,234 articles, 59 addressed ELLs, 9 oo ELLs as a primary focus (1%).
Special education - 1,749 articles, 198 on ELLs, 59 primary focus (3.4%)
Speech-language - 1,256 articles, 127 articles, 91 (7.2%), having a primary focus on ELLs. Support Service Research Child/Family Interviews
Teaching proper behavior and U.S cultural norms are therefore important
Creating environments to facilitate open dialogue to address conflicts
Pair similar students
Create shared classroom expectations (involvement and sharing fosters mutual respect and support)
Make services available for students
Address emotional needs (PTSD) Interventions Based on Research
Refugees To ensure successful collaboration, schools should allow adequate time for professionals to meet and discuss cases. Interview with Mrs. Condon, M.A., CCC-SLP works for Mary Starkweather Elementary School in West Chester Area School District
discussed authentic "multi-dimensional, multi-task" approach to assessment of ELLs
recommended intervention strategies:
Model target behaviors visually
Use a meaningful context
Make the student aware of the nature of and application of the target behavior (be sure the student knows what he/she is learning, where and when to use it, and why this is important)
Let the student lead to some extent
Increase demands as student’s progress increases
Provide elaborate feedback General Education Teacher WHAT I DO General Education Teacher How do I work with ELLs: General Education Research Interview with Ms. Wells
High School English Teacher IEPs for ELLs History of Special Education Early 20th Century Birth of intelligence testing
Justify racist beliefs
persons with disabilities denied education
Willowbrook Brown v Board of ED
To name a few:
ASD, SLD, ADHD, ED, CD, ID, MD, OHI,TBI Traditional Method: Discrepancy Model Discrepancy between aptitude and achievement
Observation: Teachers, parents
Screening: Hearing and vision
Prereferral: Some intervention
Referral: Continued frustration
Evaluation Pros Simple to use
Statistics have predictive value
Pinpoint need within test
Tried and true Cons "Wait to fail"
Hard to gain lost ground
Doesn't reflect quality of instruction
No account for cultural or linguistic differences Result: Disproportionate Representation Native American Asian Black Hispanic SLD 1.8 .4 1.43 1.17
SLI 1.37 .73 1.03 .93
MR 1.29 .48 2.86 .69
ED 1.57 .27 2.28 .55
ASD .73 1.28 .98 .57 Risk Ratios for students receiving special ed. services for given disability according to race RTI: Bridging the achievement gap Tier I Classroom Culture
Student Ecology Tier II Small group work
Address specific needs
Materials and interventions are linguistically and culturally appropriate Tier III One to one work
Time to consider more formal testing
Better acquainted with student as individual The Role of the ESL Teacher The ESL teacher works in several capacities to support an ELL. Most ELLs will receive "pull-out" instruction on a daily basis with the ESL teacher. Additionally, the ESL teacher works with general education teachers to provide suggested modifications to content and assessments.
Many ELLs consider the ESL classroom a "safe space," and the ESL teacher often becomes an advocate for the student, both in and out of school.
Behavior/Academic issues to expect (ie. non-referrals)
-Culture Shock - emotional adjustment, attention issues (SIFE), defiance/non-communicative
-Writing - Spelling/Phonics errors
-Speaking - Does not respond (early stages)
Behavior/Academic signals for referrals
-Known trauma (family, refugee situation, health)
-Speaking - non-verbal after extended period of time
-Comprehension - issues with comprehension/retention even with appropriate level readings/visuals Literature Review: ESL & Special Ed. Literature Review: ESL & Counseling Attitudes toward mental health among recent immigrants differ significantly from American views that have become more accepting of counseling, so reaching out to parents may be difficult. Some families are concerned that they and their children will be stigmatized if they acknowledge these concerns (Kugler, 2009).
For that reason, counselors who are working with both children and their families must have a sense of “cultural competence” – an awareness of and respect for the values and attitudes of diverse cultures (Williams, 2006).
“The word counselor and the profession of counseling itself possess different meanings in different cultures (Paone & Malott, 2008).” According to the authors of a recent article in the Bilingual Research Journal, “The role of bilingual education teachers in preventing inappropriate referrals of ELLs to special education: Implications for response to intervention,” there are three categories of ELLs who will experience academic difficulty:
1. Those with a lack of effective ESL support;
2. Those with difficulties not related to a learning disability, such as interrupted schooling, limited formal education, or high transiency; and
3. ELLs who are truly in need of special education (Ortiz, Robertson, Wilkinson, Liu, McGhee & Kushner, 2011).
Before identifying a child in the third category, teachers must provide appropriate instruction and interventions. According to the authors, there are two phases of interventions that must occur before a referral. First, teachers must provide appropriate scaffolding and support within the school environment. This includes utilizing appropriate instructional strategies, collaborative learning, reading instruction (phonics/word recognition) and writing instruction (communicative and mechanical).
The second phase is considered “Early Intervention.”
During this phase, many in-depth strategies and interventions must be implemented before proceeding to the third phase of referral for special education testing and services. Do Not Pass Go...
Roadblocks to ELL Success Breakdowns in the system may occur. As a result, in some scenarios, ELLs don't always get the support they need, deserve, or are legally entitled to.
Logistics/Scheduling - adults (limited communication)
Logistics/Scheduling - student (tiered gen. ed. & ESL)
Low awareness (correlates to low ELL population)
Administrative issues (paperwork, documentation)
Lack of parental involvement/Cultural differences
Financial concerns (insurance) What is the solution? Instruction addresses linguistic and cultural characteristics.
Family members attending meeting may be reluctant making decisions without first consulting other kin.
Family may be reluctant to voice dissent; follow up at meeting to discuss.
Gestures of assent may mean something else in another culture.
Some families may value privacy, and not want to share information with school officials.
Cultural based views may include health, illness, disability, honor and authority.
If parents' views about disability are very different, there may be misunderstanding about the benefits of placement in special ed. References My objective is to teach students the material from my specific subject matter.
As the general education teacher I am often the first line of response to a child in need of ELL support services.
It is important that I am aware of all my students learning abilities in order to detect issues and handle them immediately. I work in conjunction with the ESL teacher to provide appropriate accommodations and adaptations for ELL students in my classroom.
It is crucial that the ESL teacher and I work together to create reasonable and measurable objectives for each ELL student. American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA] (2011a). Cultural competence in professional service delivery [Professional Issues Statement]. Retrieved from
www.asha.org/policy October 15, 2012.
American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA] (2011b). Cultural competence in professional service delivery [Position Statement]. Retrieved from
www.asha.org/policy October 15, 2012.
American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA] (2011c). Code of fair testing in
education: Joint committee on testing practices. [Relevant Paper]. Retrieved
from www.asha.org/policy October 15, 2012.
American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA] (2011d). IDEA part C issue brief:
Cultural and linguistic diversity: 2011 IDEA Part C final regulations.[Online
document]. Retrieved from www.asha.org/policy October 15, 2012.
American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA] (2011e). Multicultural affairs and resources. Retrieved from www.asha.org/policy October 15, 2012.
American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association [ASHA] (2011f). Websites for additional information. Retrieved from www.asha.org/policy October 15, 2012.
Bender, F.W. (2004, March 16 reprinted in 2010). English Language Learners/Special Education support team. The ASHA Leader. Retrieved from www.asha.org/policy October 15, 2012.
Chabon, S., Brown, J.E., & Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. (2010, August 3). Ethics, equity, and English-Language learners: A decision-making framework. The ASHA Leader, 1-8.
Retrieved from www.asha.org/policy October 15, 2012
Goldstein, B.A. (2011, April). Providing assessment and intervention services to bilingual children: Going beyond dominance, standardized tests, and English. PowerPoint Presentation presented at the National Student Speech Language and Hearing Association (NSSLHA) conference, West Chester University Graduate Business Center.
Mosheim, J. (2004, May 24). Subtractive language acquisition: Unique challenge for English language learners. Advance for speech-language pathologists & audiologists, 10-13.Retrieved from www.advanceweb.com October 5, 2012.
Mumy, A.P.G. (2012). The Speech Stop: A one-stop resource for speech/language
pathologists, educators, and parents. Retrieved from www.thespeechstop.com
November 5, 2012.
Wright, W. E. (2010). Foundations for teaching english language learners: Research,
theory, policy, and practice. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon Publishing. Working Together to Provide Support Services for ELLs General Ed Teacher: Gabrielle Wagner
ESL Teacher: Emily Wicks
Special Ed Teacher: Kim Eckler
Speech Pathologist: Christie Earl
Guidance Counselor: Vince Grim What is the ELL population like at Owen J. Roberts High School?
We have a very small ELL population, with ELLs making up approx. 1-3% of our students in the school district. The demographic is predominantly white middle class--not much diversity.
What support services are available to ELLs ?
We have a “pull out” program where students work with a teacher who speaks their home language. We employ an immersion concept here, so that students are pulled out of their regular classrooms only once per day for a support period where they receive one-on-one learning support. The idea is that they are slowly weaned off of this program to the point where they do not need specialized learning support anymore.
Side note: While all students strive for academic success, I find that Asian students have the most success in learning the English language because of their culture. They are an education centered culture which stresses the importance of doing well in school; therefore, Asian students are highly motivated and make it a priority to learn English. To explore the various support services available to ELLs (as well as all students) and the appropriate referral and assessment processes for each; to explore how professionals collaborate effectively to determine the most appropriate supports for each ELL student, in particular. What kinds of support services are available to families of ELLs in your school?
There are points of contact for parents of ELL children, but communication between parents and teachers is mainly on the teacher’s end, informing parents of their children’s progress and what they are currently learning.
Most cultures with ELLs trust the teacher as the authority of the classroom and the person who knows best. Most parents of ELL students come from disciplinary cultures that believe the teacher is always right; therefore, the teacher is rarely challenged for her instructional practices. In my experience, I have found that with Black and Hispanic cultures, the mother is the disciplinary of the household and the person to whom I should direct all communication, and in European and Asian households, the father takes that role. You can find some information on the ideologies of your ELL students on the Internet, but most of these things I learned over the years from working with students and their families. The key is to always keep an open mind and be sympathetic and sensitive to different cultural belief systems. Helpful Resourses for General Ed. Teachers working with ELLs http://www.eslpartyland.com/teaching-esl-student
Teaching strategies & classroom management techniques
Articles on effective strategies for teaching reading, spelling, vocabulary, and working with families in the community.
Article from the journal, Teacher Education Quarterly - ways that mainstream teachers can prepare to teach ELLs.