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Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

In what ways are they linked to the daily functional needs of the human body?
by

Nicole Jones

on 8 September 2014

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Transcript of Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
In what ways are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids linked to the daily functional needs of the human body?
Include sugars and starches, and contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Carbohydrates
Referred to as "simple sugars". The most important are glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, and deoxyribose.
Glucose is the universal cellular fuel.
Monosaccharides
Formed when two simple sugars are joined by dehydration synthesis.
Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose
Disaccharides
Long, branching chains of linked simple sugars. They are ideal for storage.
Starch: storage polysaccharide formed by plants; found in grain products and root vegetables.
Glycogen: polysaccharide found in animal tissues (muscles and liver).
Polysaccharides
When glucose is broken down, the energy released is trapped in ATP molecules, which cells use for energy.
Glucose=Energy
Found in the body as triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids. All lipids contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Lipids
Composed of fatty acids and glycerol.
Represent the body's most abundant and concentrated source of usable energy.
Help insulate the body and protect deeper body tissues from heat loss and bumps.
Triglycerides
Similar to triglycerides, however they have two fatty acid chains instead of three.
The presence of phospholipids in cellular membranes allows cells to be selective about what can enter or leave.
Phospholipids
Flat molecules formed of four interlocking rings. Steroids are made of hydrogen and carbon and are fat-soluble.
Cholesterol is the most important steroid. It is found in cell membranes, and is the raw material for vitamin D, steroid hormones, and bile salts.
Steroids
Account for over 50% of the organic matter in the body. In addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, proteins also contain nitrogen and sometimes sulfur atoms.
Proteins
Building blocks of proteins. Amino acids are arranged in specific combinations to form proteins. Changing the way they are arranged can create an entirely new protein.
The structure of proteins is specified by our genes.
Amino Acids
Appear most often in body structures. They are important in binding and strengthening.
Collagen and keratin are examples
Fibrous (structural) Proteins
Mobile molecules that play crucial roles in almost all biological processes.
Provide immunity
Help regulate growth and development (hormones)
Regulate chemical reactions (enzymes)
Globular Proteins
Proteins that act as a catalyst
A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product or being changed itself.
Enzymes "hold" the reacting molecule (substrate) to the active site on the enzyme.
When enzyme bonds are broken by heat and excesses of pH, they are denatured (degraded) and can no longer perform their role.
Enzymes
Make up the genes, which provide the basic blueprint of life.
Largest biological molecules in the body
The building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides.
Nucleic Acids
Two Roles:
DNA replicates itself exactly before a cell divides.
DNA provides instructions for building proteins.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
RNA carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by DNA.
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