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BNA in 1850
Transcript of BNA in 1850
Land Rupert's Land consisted of the south-eastern part of Nunavut, the western part of Quebec, and the prairie provinces. Here, there were mostly First Nations and Inuit people. Rupert's Land had many resources, including lush wilderness, lots of farmland (from the prairie provinces), mining, oil, and rivers that drained into Hudson Bay. By 1860 there was around 97 fur trade posts within Rupert’s Land.
The Hudson’s Bay Company controlled this area. It was named Rupert's Land in honour of Prince Rupert, the king's cousin, and the company's first governor.
Rupert’s Land officially became part of Canada in 1869, however, the transfer didn’t become effective until 1870. Canada East Canada East, as well as Canada West received the greatest number of immigrants. Due to heavy immigration, the population of English-speaking inhabitants of Canada West soon exceeded the primarily French-speaking inhabitants of Canada East. Canada East consisted of the southern portion of the modern-day Canadian Province of Quebec.
Only 20% of Canada East's residents lived in the city, the rest were all farmers or habitants as they called themselves. They made their own stone houses and wooden furniture. Their clothes were homemade and their food was grown on the farms. The most important farm products were potatoes, rye, buckwheat, maple sugar, and livestock. Lumber was the most important natural resource of Canada East. In the woods, hundreds of workers cut down trees that would eventually be made into windows, shingles, washboards, and door frames. At the time of confederation, Canada East was considered to be one of the wealthiest areas in British North America. Confederation Since the 1840s, the colonies of British North America (BNA) had faced a variety of internal challenges and external pressures that helped
push the colonies toward Confederation. Around this time, in BNA, there were about 3.5 million people. 75% of which lived in Canada East and Canada West. Advantages and Disadvantages of
Canadian Confederation Pros and Cons-Confederation
• The province would keep control of its language, religion, education, and civil law.
• The United States might annex the province if it was left out of Confederation.
• The central government would have too much power.
• English representation in the proposed union would greatly outnumber French representation.
• The province would get representation by population. With it’s rapidly growing population, Canada West was assured a significant amount of power in the new country.
• Construction of an intercolonial railway in New Brunswick would open up markets. Plus, costs of building the railroad would be shared by the confederated colonies.
• Confederation would provide better defence for all provinces in case of American attack.
• For Newfoundland, confederation might offer economic opportunities to resolve problems in the fishing, timber, and agriculture industries.
• There was no guarantee of the intercolonial railway in New Brunswick, or which part of the province it would benefit.
• New Brunswick had more economic ties to the United States than to the Province of Canada.
• Nova Scotia had strong economic ties to Britain, not to the Province of Canada.
• The citizens in Nova Scotia believed they would lose their identity.
• In P.E.I. few people could see the benefit of Confederation for their colony.
• Confederation would mean higher taxes to support the intercolonial railway.
• Because of its low population in comparison to the other provinces, P.E.I. would have little power. New Caledonia was the name given to a district of the Hudson's Bay Company that included the present-day province of British Columbia. Though not a British colony, because there weren’t enough British settlers in New Caledonia, it was part of the British claim to North America. Here there was lots of fur trade, forestry, and shipping. Most of the population was First Nations, and many different First Nations lived on the Pacific Coast. Each Nation had its own language and customs. Fur traders from Britain came to the Pacific Coast in the late 1700’s to hunt sea otters. First Nations taught the fur traders how to survive in their new environment. New Caledonia continued over the next few years to be controlled by the Hudson’s Bay Company. Only about 100 people of the population were European (mostly Hudson’s Bay Company workers, and their families), and with the discovery of gold north of Yale, twenty to thirty thousand people (mostly American) came to pan for gold, and took over First Nation’s settlements. By this time, the population was at prime, with around 30,000 people. In order to accommodate these new settlers, the colony of British Columbia constructed many new roads and towns. But, when the gold rush was over, British Columbia was left with debts they couldn’t pay off, and only 10,000 people left. The name New Caledonia is still used in official and commercial names in the region. New Caledonia What was life like in British North America?
• Women responsible for domestic chores
• Men responsible for outside tasks
• Everyone helped with big jobs Children
• Expected to do chores by age 5
• Girls learned to spin, knit, sew, cook, work in the garden, milk the cows and care for the younger
• Young boys helped feed livestock and gather firewood
• Older boys cleared fields, built fences and harvested crops
• By 14 you were expected to work as hard as an adult Daily Life
• Heat came from wood stove
o Had to cut and haul wood daily
• Wood stove also used for heating water and cooking
• Light came from lamps and candles
o Went to bed early with day light
• Had to gather water from outdoor hand pumps
• Used basins for washing
• Used outhouse or chamber pot for toilet
• In the 1850s most kids stayed home to work
• In Canada West in the 1840s some schools were opened
o Very few children attended
• Religious organizations offered schooling but charged money
o Most people could not afford it
• Public school made available in the late 1800s
• No television, internet, radio
• Newspapers popular
• People wrote letters
• Visited with family and friends
• People attended church regularly
o Was a relief from the hard work of daily life and a good time to socialize Harsh Realities
• No electricity
• No heat
• No air conditioning
• If you plug it in, you didn’t have it
• No toilets
• No shower
• No running water
• Cost for Britain to defend and govern colonies
• Repeal of Corn Laws
• End of Reciprocity Treaty
• Fenian raids
• Manifest Destiny
• No intercolonial system of transportation:
could not trade from colony to colony
• United Province of Canada often in political
• National rail system too expensive for any
one colony to build Maritimes Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward Island are all part of the Maritimes. Until 1784 there were only 2 colonies-Nova Scotia, and P.E.I, then Nova Scotia was divided into 3 separate colonies-Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, and New Brunswick. This made 4 colonies in total. In the Maritimes there were very many skilled workers like, carpenters, sail makers, loggers, farmers, fishers, shipbuilders, and overseas traders. The Maritime provinces had a lower population than the Canadas. Most of the population was British, and they traded mostly with the British, the Americans, and citizens from West Indies. British North America in 1850 Canada West Canada West had a lot of set backs in the 1800's. Imagine a race : these set backs caused Canada West to fall behind Canada East. But, in the 1880's, they eventually caught up. These set backs were ones like, Canada West had too many poor, uneducated workers, who weren't skilled like Canada East's. Another one was that there were too many women and children, and recent immigrants. One more was, Canada West didn't have good, safe roads that they really needed for transportation, so they had to use boats on water.
In the 1870's Canada West finally moved toward industrialization, with small factories when citizens learned how to do textiles and metal work. However, before industrialization and at the time of confederation, farming was the main and most common industry. The citizen's knew how to farm, and not to say that it wasn't hard, but it wasn't very complicated. So, the uneducated people of Canada West were comfortable doing this. They mainly farmed wheat, and corn.
Canada West was British, or most people were. There was First Nations, but by this time, they lived on reserves. North Western Territory North Western Territory covered what is now Yukon, most of Northwest Territories, northwestern Nunavut, northwestern Saskatchewan, northern Alberta and northern British Columbia. Just like New Caledonia, the time of the gold rush was when the population was at it's highest point. North Western Territory was very cold, so there wasn't a large population living here, but nonetheless, the conditions were livable, and still are. Most of the Inuit people lived here during the time of confederation, but were pushed into the very northern parts of Nunavut, North West Territories, and Yukon when the gold rush went on. This was because, just like New Caledonia, the Americans invaded the Inuit's villages. Despite the low population, and cold winter season, there was still a great economy in North Western Territory, with industry sectors including, lumber, agriculture, fishing (ice fishing in winter months), trapping, and mining. External Factors Leading to Confederation
Internal Factors Leading to Confederation