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Katherine Anderson

on 25 October 2013

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Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome
General Information:

- One of the most common inherited disorders
-Males are three to four times more likely to be affected than females

appear between ages 4-8

include motor and vocal tics ("repetetive, involuntary movements or utterances that are rapid and sudden and persist for more than 1 year

symptoms are most often extremely mild and do not affect normal body functions
results from a hypersensitivity of dopamine receptors (Serotonin, another neurotransmitter is also implicated)

communication between the neurotransmitters is disrupted during the development of the brain and the spinal cord (Central nervous system)
Possible Causes:
Neurotransmissions in the development of the brain and spinal cord are disrupted
Group A Streptococcus bacterium (the antibodies originally manufactured to fight the infection damage specific nerve cells which can no longer function)
Treatment Options:
Treatment is highly individualized because of the associated conditions and disabilities that may accompany TS ( learning disabilities, dyslexia, etc.)
Medicines: neuroleptics- only recommended if tics cause serious problems (medicine is not necessarily prescribed since most symptoms are mild and don't require any type of specific treatment)
Haloperidol: controls movements by blocking the overactive system
Pimozide: controls involuntary vocalizations
*Both medicines help but DO NOT help any associated conditions developed with TS
Psychotherapy: talking and socializing with those around you tends to help manage stress
General Effects On The Body:
Induces involuntary and random repetetive vocal and physical movements and sounds either complex or simple
Tourettes vs. control patient:
Ventral striatum: The striatum is a subcortical (i.e. inside, rather than on the outside) part of the cerebrum
both of these figures illustrate correlations between metabolic rates in both a Tourette's and control patient
Red- positive correlation; blue- negative correlation
there are significant differences in correlations between the TS patient and the control patient
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