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Sound Waves

Behind the science of sound
by

Maxwell Hyman

on 3 June 2015

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Transcript of Sound Waves

Behind the science of sound
Sound Waves
Overview
Sound has been around for a long time since the world has started. Cavemen used to communicated with huffs and gruffs. They were the first humans to start a language. In 1500, Leonardo Da Vinci discovered that s0und travels in waves. When you speak, your vocal coards vibrate, producing waves that travel out your mouth, and into the air. When sound reaches your ears, the sound enters through your ear canals and goes into your deep ear, like so.
Sound from the start
Scientists have recently developed a scale of sound. The hertz scale is the most common sound scale and it is all about the frequency of a sound. The highest sounds on the scale rank a high number, and vice versa for the lower sounds, The number that a sound recives is based on cycles per second. Cps (cycles per second) is the measure of how frequently an alternating current changes direction. Sound waves are very fast! Some sound might even travel miles in just seconds. The speed of sound in air at sea level is about 760 mph. That's pretty fast! A car might go 70 miles per hour tops on a highway, but sound is 690 mph more! Sound travels faster in liquids and solids than it does in air. It travels about 4.3 times as fast in water, and nearly 15 times as fast in iron. Sound waves in solids are composed of compression waves (just as in gases and liquids),


The Hertz scale of sound
By: Max Hyman and TJ Mangurten
In this prezi, you will learn how sound waves work. You will gain knowledge about all different kinds of sounds. From small vibrations or whispers that create sounds very low and gentle, to sounds that are so high that the human ear can't hear it, you will discover how many things that "sound" can mean. There are two types of sound waves that feature similarities and differences, both of which you will discover. Experience the beginning of time when the dinosaurs roared to current modern time's awesome technology and talking computers, sound and communication has evolved a lot and is still changing for the better.
Compression
Compression is how sound travels through any solid, liquid or gas. Compressed (or closer together) waves journey fastest through solids because the particles are closest together. The waves travel slower in liquids because the particles can move more freely, and it takes longer for them to bump into each other. Sound travels very slowly through a gas, because the particles are very spread out. Sometimes, the waves are strong enough to hit off something and echo back.
Longitudinal waves are side to side, while transverse waves travel up and down. In the pictures below, you will see the differences between longitudinal and transverse sound waves.
The difference
Transverse Waves
A transverse wave is a wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction perpendicular to the direction that the wave moves. Suppose that a slinky is stretched out in a horizontal direction across the classroom and that a pulse is introduced into the slinky on the left end by vibrating the first coil up and down. Energy will begin to be transported through the slinky from left to right. As the energy is transported from left to right, the individual coils of the medium will be displaced upwards and downwards. In this case, the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction that the pulse moves. This type of wave is a transverse wave. Transverse waves are always characterized by particle motion being perpendicular to wave motion. Electromagnet waves are transverse.
THANKS FOR "LISTENING"
A longitudinal wave is a wave in which particles of the medium move in a direction parallel to the direction that the wave moves. Suppose that a slinky is stretched out in a horizontal direction across the classroom and that a pulse is introduced into the slinky on the left end by vibrating the first coil left and right. Energy will begin to be transported through the slinky from left to right. As the energy is transported from left to right, the individual coils of the medium will be displaced leftwards and rightwards. In this case, the particles of the medium move parallel to the direction that the pulse moves. So, basically, they travel via compressions. Longitudinal waves are always characterized by particle motion being parallel to wave motion. Sound waves that travel through regular air is an example of a longitudinal wave.
Longitudinal Waves
Both of these types of waves travel when particles bump into each other, the speed depending on the object.
Fun Facts
Sound comes from vibrations. These vibrations create sound waves which move through mediums such as air and water before reaching our ears.

Our ears vibrate in a similar way to the original source of the vibration, allowing us to hear many different sounds.

Dogs can hear sound at a higher frequency than humans, allowing them to hear noises that we can’t.

Sound is used by many animals to detect danger, warning them of possible attacks before they happen.

Sound can’t travel through a vacuum (an area empty of matter).

The speed of sound is around 767 miles per hour (1,230 kilometres per hour).

The loud noise you create by cracking a whip occurs because the tip is moving so fast it breaks the speed of sound!

When traveling through water, sound moves around four times faster than when it travels through air.

The scientific study of sound waves is known as acoustics.

Although music can be hard to define, it is often described as a pleasing or meaningful arrangement of sounds.

The sound of thunder is produced by rapidly heated air surrounding lightning which expands faster than the speed of sound.
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