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Stem Cell Investigation

IB Biology 4A Katie Moshofsky

Katie M

on 20 September 2012

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Transcript of Stem Cell Investigation

Katie Moshofsky Stem Cell Investigation:
Parkinson's Disease The two main types of Stem cells are Embryonic and Somatic Stem cells.
Stem Cells hold a unique role in the body. These unspecialized cells are able to reproduce both themselves and create certain specialized cells such as the brain cell, muscle cell, and red blood cell. Stem Cell Therapy In 2009, the first neural stem cells transplant for the treatment of Parkinson's disease was successful. Treating Parkinson's through Stem Cell Therapy Cited Sources "Stem Cell Treatment and Stem Cell Therapy | Vista Stem Cell." Stem Cell Treatment and Stem Cell Therapy | Vista Stem Cell. Vista Stem Cell, n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. <http://www.vistastemcell.com/parkinsons_treatment>. "Frequently Asked Questions." Stem Cell Basics: Introduction [Stem Cell Information]. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. <http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics1.asp>. http://blog.voicewize.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Parkinsons-disease-quick-overview-image1.jpg Certain diseases are caused by a deficiency of a certain type of healthy cell. During Stem Cell Therapy, scientists are able to inject donor stem cells into the affected area, and these stem cells will begin to produce the healthy cell of which the patient is deficient. Embryonic Stem Cell Somatic Stem Cell Embryonic cells are extracted from a blastocyst, the early stage of an embryo. These are ideal stem cell therapy, because they can create almost any kind of tissue. This cell's potential is still being researched. Somatic Stem Cells, or Adult Stem Cells, are often used in Stem Cell Therapy. These types of cells can only produce the specialized cells of the organ from which they were taken. For example, if bone marrow was extracted, the Somatic Stem cells can reproduce blood cells. These stem cells are generally taken from the patient themselves. The benefit of the Somatic cell is that the body's immune system is not likely to reject the transplant. Ertelt, Steven. "Adult Stem Cell Research Reverses Effects of Parkinson’s Disease in Human Trial." Adult Stem Cell Research Reverses Effects of Parkinsonâs Disease in Human Trial. Life News, 16 Feb. 2009. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. <http://www.lifenews.com/2009/02/16/bio-2751/>. The surgery consisted of extracting the dopamine-producing neural stem cells from the afflicted patient, isolating these stem cells, and ultimately multiplying and making them differentiate to produce healthy and mature neurons, needed for patients of Parkinson's Disease. These cells are then injected into the patient and reintroduced to the brain. The cells lost to Parkinson's are replaced and replenished by the implanted Stem Cells, temporarily reversing the affects of the disease. A key factor in this procedure was the use of patient derived adult stem cells. Unlike embryonic stem cells, these do not carry the risk of being reject by the patient's immune System. The results were astounding. Recipients of this procedure show 80% improved motor skills for over 36 months, with a 90% success rate. Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease is a nervous system disorder that is caused by a loss of dopamine-producing brain cells, resulting in impaired motor skills. Patients usually suffer from tremors and trembling, stiffness of limbs, and slowed movement. The disease generally affects adults over the age of forty. The current treatments for the disease usually include injecting dopamine into the system, which helps with the pain, but ultimately can not reverse or cure the disease. There is now new, promising research being done on treating the disease with Stem Cell Therapy. "What Is Parkinson's Disease?" Parkinson's Disease Information Page: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). NINDS Parkinson's Disease Information Page, 18 Sept. 2012. Web. 20 Sept. 2012. <http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons_disease/parkinsons_disease.htm>.
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