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AQA MEDICINE & HEALTH THROUGH TIME

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Hana Davis

on 5 January 2015

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Transcript of AQA MEDICINE & HEALTH THROUGH TIME

Ancient Medicine
Farmers
Aboriginals
The first people to come to Australia were the Aborigines. They continued to live into modern times in the same way as their ancestors.

Aboriginal herbal remedies, passed down in oral tradition over the last 40,000 years.

Aboriginal belief:
Everyone has their own spirit inside them. If a person becomes ill, it is because their spirit has left them.

Honey was used to stop bacteria and to cure sore throats.

Pointing bones come from aboriginal medicine. The stick is endowed with a magical power that when pointed at the victim, they are supposed to sicken and die within a month at the most.


taken from 'http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/shp/ancient/egyptianknowledgerev1.shtml'
AQA MEDICINE & HEALTH THROUGH TIME
What does prehistory mean?
Surgery and Anatomy
Egyptian doctors new many parts of the human body but often didn't know what each part did. The Egyptians did not dissect bodies as it was against their religion as the body was needed for the afterlife. They may have learned about bodies through embalming however at times in Egyptian history, embalmers were thought of as unclean and cut off from other people meaning they would not have been able to spread their knowledge which is a regressive factor in Egyptian medicine.
Public Health
The Pharoah and his government did not do anything to protect the people from disease and infection. However, the Egyptians took great care to keep clean for religious purposes. Richer homes contained wash facilities normally consisting of a servant with a jug of water and a hole in the wall or vase in the floor. They had toilets but they had to be emptied by hand.
The Egyptians
Continuity - (same as prehistoric)
Both use honey as a natural remedy.
Charms were used to protect against evil spirits.
Still used natural remedies.
A man who treated remedies (medicine man).
Built simple houses out of similar materials.
Herbal remedies were passed down.

Changes -
Wrote and recorded methods.
Better, more advanced transport had an organised government that ruled a huge area.
Used river for transport to share and spread resources.
Reliable farming methods.
Dug irrigation channels to supply crops with water.
Most treatments used honey and malachite.
People had servants to empty toilets and bring water.
Hunter-Gatherers
Until roughly 10,000BC, people lived by hunting animals and gathering fruits and nuts as they traveled. They were nomads, living 'on the move'.

They had a life expectancy of around 19-25.

Hunter- gatherers wore charms around their necks to ward off evil spirits that caused illness.

Each tribe had a medicine man.

Hunters could catch diseases from animal skins or bites such as anthrax, rabies, animal skins or bites.

They kept on the move to avoid diseases and there were no polluted water supplies or piles of human excrement to attract disease carrying insects.

Tribes had to leave sick family and friends to die as they had to keep up with the herds for food.

Gashes were covered with mud and bound with strips of tree bark to. Open wounds lead to gangrene which killed the victim.
Egyptian Treatments
Around 10,000BC, people started to settle in one place to farm the land, grow crops and keep herds of animals.

Each village had a medicine man who offered charms and prayers to the gods for people who were sick.

Villagers passed natural remedies down from generation to generation.

Prehistoric people believed that a lot of illnesses had supernatural causes and that evil spirits could enter the body.

As well as offering charms and chants, the medicine man also trepanned skulls to relieve headaches and used a range of herbal remedies.


Very organised and able to govern a huge area.
Head of government called Pharoah.
Pharoah helped keep country safe and prosperous.

Communication
The word 'prehistory' means 'before writing' which means that the Prehistoric Period was the time before writing began. Therefore 'prehistory' means different times in different places. The Ancient Egyptians developed writing in 3000BC so that is when their Prehistoric Period ended. On the other hand, we were first introduced to writing 3000 years later when the Romans conquered Britain in AD34. People such as the Aboriginals of Australia or the Azande in Sudan, Africa, did not develop writing until the 19th century so their Prehistoric Period lasted until then.


Government
Technology
Good at buliding and excellent craftsmen.
Used river for drink, to grow crops and communicate
Had an excellent food source.
Good reliable farming methods.
Houses were made simply, normally of bricks and sundried mud.
They produced paper using the leaves off the papyrus plant.
They wrote in hieroglyphics.
Used maths to draw and scale pyramids that were built to last forever and guarded by sphinxes.
Bodies were mummified by trained priests.


The Nile was Egypt's main form of transportation.
Ships on the Nile carried water, wine, oil, building stones and materials.
This meant that the valuable resources could be easily spread.
They were able to record things easily and effectively.
Religion
Played a role in how Egypt was governed.
The Pharoah was the child of the Sun God.
There were many different Gods and Goddesses, each with supernatural powers.
Different parts of Egypt worshiped different Gods.
They held lots of religious ceremonies.
Religion was a part of everyday life.
Mummifying was a religious process which preserved the body, giving the priests more knowledge of anatomy and modern historians an idea of what the Egyptian looked like.
Herbs, plants, minerals and animal parts were used to treat patients. Ingredients such as honey were local but some were brought in by traders from abroad. The Egyptians traded with India, China, Arabia and North Africa.
Progressive

Mummification led to advances in knowledge of anatomy, and led to good bandaging skills.

Healer-priests gradually evolved into professional doctors.

Cleanliness was important to Egyptians for religious reasons.

Egyptians thought spells and remedies would give additional 'power' to their practical medical cures.
Regressive

Religion channelled money and thought away from practical medicine.


Much medicine was nevertheless still done by magicians and priests.


Egyptians did not understand the medical significance of cleanliness.


Some charms were downright unhealthy.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/shp/ancient/egyptiandoctorsrev2.shtml
Wealthy egyptian's limestone toilet
Ancient Greeks
Greeks became rich through farming and trade. Hard work was done by slaves and the poor which meant that the wealthy class could spend their time being educated. The majority of Greeks believed that everything was down to the Gods. They were very religious. However a minority of Greeks began looking for more logical, natural explanations for all kind of aspects of the world around them. Men like Socrates, Plato and Aristotle became famous philosophers, investigating science, maths, astronomy, politics and many more.
Hippocrates
Hippocratic Oath:
Created by Hippocrates to give people confidence in doctors. It states that doctors are not magicians, they work for the benefit of their patients, not to make themselves wealthy.
'I will swear by Apollo, Asclepius and by all the gods that I will carry out this oath. I will use treatment to help the sick according to my ability ad judgement but never wit a view to injury or wrongdoing. I will not give poison to anybody. Whatever I see or hear professionally will be kept secret'
Hippocrates
He wrote some of the books in the Hippocratic Collection. These books made detailed lists of symptoms and treatments. These books were used by doctors for centuries after.
He showed that it was important to observe and record the symptoms and development of diseases.
Hippocrates encouraged doctors to look for natural treatments instead of praying to the gods.
The Four Humours
Our body contains the four humours, when we are healthy they are all perfectly balanced but when we fall ill, the become unbalanced and we have to much or too little of a humour.
the Greek philosopher Pythagoras came up with the idea of the balance of opposites. This gave Greek doctors their idea of the underlying cause of disease. We can read about this in the 70 books ascribed to the Greek doctor Hippocrates, who thought that disease occurred when the humours of the body fell out of balance.
Greek doctors made careful studies of the different kinds of illness - in particular they noted the natural history of the illness.
Opposites
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/shp/ancient/greekknowledgerev1.shtml
The Romans
Did Hippocrates end the belief that God's caused illness?
Hippocrates believed that doctors should look for natural causes and use natural treatments but not everyone agreed with him. The Greeks continued to send patients to the Asclepion to be treated. Priests in these temples were very practical healers but it was still nonetheless run by religious people.

Claudius Galen
Galen
Galen combined Greek ideas with what he learned from his own work in Alexandria and Rome and put on public demonstrations and dissections. He presented his ideas so convincingly that they became the basis for medical teaching and learning for the next 1500 years.
Galen's work was built on key ideas from the Hippocratic collection. He believed in the theory of the four humours and Galen also told doctors to observe their patients and make detailed notes.
However, Galen believed in a more hands on approach and unlike Hippocrates, he believed that Physicians should find out as much about the structure and workings of the body as possible.
Books
Galen wrote hundreds of books, covering every aspect of medicine and including the work of earlier doctors such as Hippocrates. His ideas fitted with those of the Christian church which controlled education in Europe in the Middle Ages meaning he had religious backing. He believed that all the parts of the body fit perfectly together by one god which matched Christian beliefs.

Public Health
Roman rulers needed healthy soldiers to control the Empire. Healthy workers and merchants were needed to keep the Empire fed and prosperous. Therefore they built their towns and army forts in healthy places away from marshland and polluted water. They built aqueducts and took water from springs, using sewers to carry away waste. They also provided bath houses and water fountains for public use.

Homes of the rich were supplied with water but it had to be carried upstairs by slaves.

However, there were some things that the Romans could not control...
Public Health
They could not stop the plague from spreading.

The sewers were large and the rough surface at the bottom trapped bacteria causing disease.

Towns could still be dirty places as waste was sometimes chucked out the window onto streets below.

The water in bath houses was only changed once a week and they were at such a temperature that they became became hotbeds of disease
The Egyptians developed a theory of physiology that saw the heart as the centre of a system of 46 tubes, or 'channels'. They failed, though, to realise that the different tubes (veins, intestines, lungs etc) had specific purposes. Their system is called the Channel Theory by historians.

Having observed the damage done to farmers' fields when an irrigation channel became blocked, the Egyptians developed the idea that disease occurred when an evil spirit called the Wehedu blocked one of the body's 'channels'.

This was a crucial breakthrough in the history of medicine, because it led doctors to abandon purely spiritual cures for illness, and instead to try practical cures designed simply to unblock the channel.

Knowledge about the body
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