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Copy of Grammar

General Writing Class presentation for a brief review of grammar before starting Project One
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on 13 June 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Grammar

Grammar
ENGLISH
Composition
Nouns
Adverbs
infinitives
VERBS
Tenses
gerunds
Prepositions
past
present
future
adjectives
articles
example
pronouns
conditionals
abstract
concrete
modifiers
INTERJECTIONS
conjunctions
punctuation
Clauses
Wow, the hungry cat chased the mouse under the table and quickly ate it.

Wow = Interjection
Cat = Noun
Hungry = Adjective
Chased = Verb
Under = Preposition
And = Conjunction
Quickly = Adverb
It = Pronoun

A clause refers to a group of related words (within a sentence or itself as an independent sentence) which has both subject and predicate.

Ex:
I will meet

him
at home.

The part of above sentence “I will meet him” is a clause because it has a subject (I) and a predicate (will meet him).
Parts of Speech
1. Nouns
2. Verbs
3. Adverbs
4. Adjectives
NOUNS
a person, place, object (living and non-living), feeling, idea, or quality
5. Pronouns
6. Prepositions
7. Interjections
8. Conjunctions
Proper Nouns:

Specific person, place, or thing (Capitalized)
Charles, California, Queen Elizabeth, Pakistan, Lahore, Hassan

Common Nouns:
represents a class of things (not capitalized)
teacher, ball, class
Abstract:
intelligence
bravery
loyalty
eloquence
convenience
Concrete:
student
table
dog
pencil
computer
VERBS
Conveys an
action
(bring, read, walk, run, learn), an
occurrence
(happen, become), or a
state of being
(be, exist, stand)

Example:
The woman
painted
a picture.

painted
is a verb because it expresses action.

Example:
The woman
is
a fine painter.

is
is a verb because it expresses a state of being.

A verb may be more than one word (when it includes
helping verbs
or
auxiliaries
). This is called a
verb phrase
.

Example:
They
should not be feeding
the lions.

should not be feeding
are a verb phrase because they include helping verbs or auxiliaries.


ADJECTIVES
Words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence

An adjective is a word or phrase that is used to modify a noun or pronoun. It tells
What kind?

Which one? How many? How much?


Often identified through
articles
such as:
a, an, and the

Examples:
The

short
professor
A
solid
commitment
A
month’s
pay
A
six-year
old child
The
unhappiest, rich
man

ADVERBS
Conjunctions
A joiner word that connects parts of a sentence

Coordinate conjunctions
Ex: FANBOYS – For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So 

Subordinate
are glue words.
Ex: if, since, because, although, whereas, even though, as soon as, unless

Correlative conjunctions
are pairs of conjunctions.
Ex: either…or; neither…nor; not only…but also.

Interjections!
A part of speech that usually has no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence and simply expresses emotion on the part of the speaker


Pronouns
Generally pronouns refer to a noun, individual(s), or thing(s) whose identity was made clear earlier in the text.

They, Them, Theirs
We, Us, Our
He, She, It, I
You, Yours, Mine
This, That, Those, These
Etc.
Prepositions
Links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. Usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence.
(direction / time / place)

Examples:
The book is
on
the table.
The book is
beneath
the table.
The book is
leaning
against the table.
The book is
beside
the table.
She held the book
over
the table.
She read the book
during
class
agreement
DEFINITIONS
metaphors
analogies
word usage
...
"
,
?
.
Cliches vs. Jargon
`
Modifies other words by asking HOW
Modifies Verbs: He drove
slowly

Modifies Adjectives: H
e drove a
very

fast ca
r
Modifies other Adverbs: She moved
quite

slowly
down the street
e
r
r
o
r
s
Sentences
Compound Sentence
A compound sentence contains
two independent clauses
joined by a
coordinator
.
Simple Sentence
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a
subject
and a
verb
, and it expresses a complete thought.
Complex Sentence
A complex sentence has an
independent
clause joined by one or more
dependent
clauses.
Types of Sentences - according to function
Declarative
: makes a statement to relay information or ideas [punctuated with a period.]

Imperative
: makes a command or polite request [punctuated with a period or they can be exclamations requiring an exclamation mark!]

Exclamatory
: expresses great emotion or excitement [always end in an exclamation mark!]

Interrogative
: asks a question
[always end with a question mark?]
Paragraphs
A paragraph is a series of sentences developed around one topic (main idea).
example:
Some
students

like
to study in the morning.

I

ate
ice cream.
example:
Alex played football
, so

Maria went shopping
.

I ate ice cream
, but
my friend ate cookies.
example:
John
and
Mary

went
to the movies
after
they
finished
studying.

When dinner was over, I ate ice cream for dessert.
A complex sentence always has a subordinator

[After, Although, As, When, Whenever, Whether, Where, Wherever, While, How, If, In case, In order, That, Though, Even if, Even though, Ever since, Because,
Before, Unless, Until, Since, So, So that]
or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.
The coordinators are as follows:
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
Except for very short sentences, coordinators are
always preceded by a comma.
Paragraphs
DETERMINERS
Types of Verbs
Action Verbs

Linking Verbs

Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs
Action verb
- a verb that expresses physical or mental action.

Often ends in “ing”, “s”, or “ed,”

Ex
: Nick was
talking
to me.
She
believes
your story.
I
bowled
a great game tonight.

Linking verb (State of being)
– instead of showing what the subject is doing, this verb shows the subject in a state of being. It links the subject to some other word in the sentence that describes, identifies, or gives more information about it.

is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been

Ex:
John
was
sick for two days. John
is
hungry.

Helping verb
- helps the main verb tell what happens or what exists









Examples:

I
baked
a cake.
ACTION
VERB

The cake
was
delicious.
LINKING
VERB

I
did

bake
a delicious cake.
1 HELPING
VERB +
ACTION
VERB

I
should have

been

on time.
2 HELPING
VERBS +
LINKING
VERB

I
should have been

eating
by now.
3 HELPING
VERBS +
ACTION
VERB

He might swim at the meet tomorrow.
Might
is the
helping
verb and
swim
is the
main
verb.
Coordinating Conjunctions

FANBOYS
for - I’m excited,
for
today is my birthday.
and - The pens
and
pencils are here.
nor - I didn’t like the movie,
nor
did she.
but - I like carrots
but
not lima beans.
or - Are you eating pizza
or
hamburgers?
yet - He works quickly
yet
carefully.
so - Mary wanted a new phone,
so
she saved her allowance money.

Correlative Conjunctions

Either ~ or - I’ll
either
walk
or
jog home.
Neither ~ nor -
Neither
you
nor
I have blue eyes.
Not only ~ but also -
Not only
do I like ELA,
but
I
also
like science class.
Both ~ and - Leah earned an A in
both
math
and
religion.
Whether ~ or - We need to decide
whether
to leave
or
to stay.

Interjections
typically indicate strong feelings or excitement.

Wow
! We won!
Ouch
! That pan is hot!
Yes
! I got an A!

Some interjections are followed by commas, and indicate a mild feeling instead or a strong one.

Well
, I better get started.
Oh
, how I dread Mondays.

Common Interjections

Well,
Please,
Yes,
Hey,



Adjectives
What kind - Size, shape, color
Ex:
colorful
pictures,
violent
storm,
the red
pen
Sentence: We stayed in a
small mountain
cabin.

Which one

Ex:
a
dog,
an
ape,
the
cat,
this
book,
that
hat,
these
men,
those
toys.
Sentence: I live in the
blue
house.

How many

Ex:
several
statues,
three
pens,
few
pages,
many
people
Sentence: We have lived in
six
homes.

How much
-
Ex:
a lot, tons, few
Sentence: They had
some
time to spare.

The articles
the, a
and
an
are always adjectives. These come before nouns in a sentence.




What is a Sentence?
Sentence is a grammatically complete series of words that at least consist of a
subject
and
predicate
.
Sentence has a subject, a verb, and a complete thought.

A group of words which expresses a complete idea or thought is called a sentence.

Ex:
The baby cried.
Mom went to the store, and my sister went to the office.
That’s the man who bought our house.
The town where I grew up in is in America.



Parts of a Sentence
A sentence consists of two parts -
subject
and
predicate
.
Subject
- The part of sentence which performs some action in a sentence is called Subject. A subject can be a noun, pronoun, noun clause or noun phrase.

He
is flying a kite.
John
is driving a car.
She
ate an apple.
I
wrote him a letter.

Predicate
- The part of sentence which tells about the subject is called predicate.

He
is flying a kite
.
John
is driving a car
.
She
ate an apple
.
I
wrote him a letter
.

Examples:
Declarative Sentences
: make a statement

• The concert begins in two hours.
• Green is my favorite color.
• Declarative sentences make a statement.

Imperative Sentences
: order / request

• Halt!
• Yield.
• Watch for oncoming traffic.
• Respond immediately.

Exclamatory Sentences
: express strong emotion

• The river is rising!
• I can’t wait for the party!
• I don’t know what I’ll do if I don’t pass this test!

Interrogative Sentences
: ask a question

• Is it snowing?
• Have you had breakfast?
• Do you want Coke or Pepsi?


Types of Sentences - according to structure
A sentence's structure is determined by the number and kinds of clauses it contains.

Simple Sentence
- consists of an
independent clause
, so it contains a
subject and a verb
.
It does NOT contain either a
dependent clause
or another simple sentence.
EX: The dog barked.

Compound Sentence -
consists of two or more simple sentences joined by a
comma
followed by a
coordinating conjunction
(for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) / a
semicolon
(;)
EX: The dog barked, the cat yowled, and the rabbit chewed.

Complex Sentence -
consists of a combination of an
independent clause and a dependent clause.
EX: The dog that was in the street howled loudly.

Compound-Complex Sentence -
consists of a combination of a compound sentence and a complex sentence.
EX: As the dog howled, one cat sat on the fence, and the other licked its paws.
Types of Clauses:
There are two major types of clauses -
main (or independent) clause
and
subordinate (or dependent) clause
.

He is buying a shirt

which looks very nice.
 

The above sentence has two clauses “He is buying a shirt” and “which looks very nice”.

The clause “
He is buying a shirt
” expresses a complete thought and can alone stand as a sentence. Such a clause is called
main or independent clause.

While the clause “
which looks very nice
” does not express a complete thought and can’t stand as a sentence. It depends on another clause (main clause) to express a complete idea. Such a clause is called
subordinate or dependent clause
.

Compound-Complex Sentence
A compound-complex sentence consists of at least
two independent
and
one or more dependent clauses
.

EX:

He went to college
and
I went to a market

where I bought a book.

I like Mathematics
but
my bother likes Biology

because he wants to be a doctor.

I ate ice cream for dessert when dinner was over,


but my friend ate cookies.


Before you begin writing, you must figure out what the purpose of the paragraph is.

Persuade
Inform
Entertain
Share Feelings
Types of Paragraphs
Descriptive
- It tells what the subject looks, sounds, feels, tastes, and/or smells like by using vivid imagery.

Narrative
- It tells a story.

Expository
- It provides information or explains a subject. Or, it gives steps and shows how to do something.

Persuasive
- It proves your belief or feeling about something.



Parts of a Paragraph
A paragraph has three major structural parts:

topic sentence -
The topic sentence states the main idea of the paragraph. It not only names the topic of the paragraph, but it also limits the topic to one or two areas that can be discussed completely in the space of a single paragraph. The specific area is called the
controlling idea
.

Gold
, a precious metal, is prized for
two important characteristics.

supporting sentences -
Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence. That is, they explain the topic sentence by giving reasons, examples, facts, statistics, and quotations.

concluding sentence -
The concluding sentence signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader
with important points to remember

Useful Transition Words
To show addition
:
Again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second, etc.), further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, moreover, next, too

To give examples
:
for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate

To compare
:
Also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly

To summarize or conclude
:
All in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum

To indicate logical relationship
:
Accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thus

To contrast
:
Although, and yet, at the same time, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, though

Independent Clause
:
A clause that
can
stand alone

I ate ice cream.


Dependent Clause
:
A clause that
cannot
stand alone

When dinner was over
independent clause
independent clause
dependent clause
independent clause
independent clause
independent clause
dependent clause
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