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Copy of Grammar
Transcript of Copy of Grammar
Wow, the hungry cat chased the mouse under the table and quickly ate it.
Wow = Interjection
Cat = Noun
Hungry = Adjective
Chased = Verb
Under = Preposition
And = Conjunction
Quickly = Adverb
It = Pronoun
A clause refers to a group of related words (within a sentence or itself as an independent sentence) which has both subject and predicate.
I will meet
The part of above sentence “I will meet him” is a clause because it has a subject (I) and a predicate (will meet him).
Parts of Speech
a person, place, object (living and non-living), feeling, idea, or quality
Specific person, place, or thing (Capitalized)
Charles, California, Queen Elizabeth, Pakistan, Lahore, Hassan
represents a class of things (not capitalized)
teacher, ball, class
(bring, read, walk, run, learn), an
(happen, become), or a
state of being
(be, exist, stand)
is a verb because it expresses action.
a fine painter.
is a verb because it expresses a state of being.
A verb may be more than one word (when it includes
). This is called a
should not be feeding
should not be feeding
are a verb phrase because they include helping verbs or auxiliaries.
Words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence
An adjective is a word or phrase that is used to modify a noun or pronoun. It tells
Which one? How many? How much?
Often identified through
a, an, and the
A joiner word that connects parts of a sentence
Ex: FANBOYS – For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So
are glue words.
Ex: if, since, because, although, whereas, even though, as soon as, unless
are pairs of conjunctions.
Ex: either…or; neither…nor; not only…but also.
A part of speech that usually has no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence and simply expresses emotion on the part of the speaker
Generally pronouns refer to a noun, individual(s), or thing(s) whose identity was made clear earlier in the text.
They, Them, Theirs
We, Us, Our
He, She, It, I
You, Yours, Mine
This, That, Those, These
Links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. Usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence.
(direction / time / place)
The book is
The book is
The book is
against the table.
The book is
She held the book
She read the book
Cliches vs. Jargon
Modifies other words by asking HOW
Modifies Verbs: He drove
Modifies Adjectives: H
e drove a
Modifies other Adverbs: She moved
down the street
A compound sentence contains
two independent clauses
joined by a
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a
, and it expresses a complete thought.
A complex sentence has an
clause joined by one or more
Types of Sentences - according to function
: makes a statement to relay information or ideas [punctuated with a period.]
: makes a command or polite request [punctuated with a period or they can be exclamations requiring an exclamation mark!]
: expresses great emotion or excitement [always end in an exclamation mark!]
: asks a question
[always end with a question mark?]
A paragraph is a series of sentences developed around one topic (main idea).
to study in the morning.
Alex played football
Maria went shopping
I ate ice cream
my friend ate cookies.
to the movies
When dinner was over, I ate ice cream for dessert.
A complex sentence always has a subordinator
[After, Although, As, When, Whenever, Whether, Where, Wherever, While, How, If, In case, In order, That, Though, Even if, Even though, Ever since, Because,
Before, Unless, Until, Since, So, So that]
or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.
The coordinators are as follows:
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.
Except for very short sentences, coordinators are
always preceded by a comma.
Types of Verbs
Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs
- a verb that expresses physical or mental action.
Often ends in “ing”, “s”, or “ed,”
: Nick was
a great game tonight.
Linking verb (State of being)
– instead of showing what the subject is doing, this verb shows the subject in a state of being. It links the subject to some other word in the sentence that describes, identifies, or gives more information about it.
is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been
sick for two days. John
- helps the main verb tell what happens or what exists
a delicious cake.
should have been
He might swim at the meet tomorrow.
for - I’m excited,
today is my birthday.
and - The pens
pencils are here.
nor - I didn’t like the movie,
but - I like carrots
not lima beans.
or - Are you eating pizza
yet - He works quickly
so - Mary wanted a new phone,
she saved her allowance money.
Either ~ or - I’ll
Neither ~ nor -
I have blue eyes.
Not only ~ but also -
do I like ELA,
like science class.
Both ~ and - Leah earned an A in
Whether ~ or - We need to decide
typically indicate strong feelings or excitement.
! We won!
! That pan is hot!
! I got an A!
Some interjections are followed by commas, and indicate a mild feeling instead or a strong one.
, I better get started.
, how I dread Mondays.
What kind - Size, shape, color
Sentence: We stayed in a
Sentence: I live in the
Sentence: We have lived in
a lot, tons, few
Sentence: They had
time to spare.
are always adjectives. These come before nouns in a sentence.
What is a Sentence?
Sentence is a grammatically complete series of words that at least consist of a
Sentence has a subject, a verb, and a complete thought.
A group of words which expresses a complete idea or thought is called a sentence.
The baby cried.
Mom went to the store, and my sister went to the office.
That’s the man who bought our house.
The town where I grew up in is in America.
Parts of a Sentence
A sentence consists of two parts -
- The part of sentence which performs some action in a sentence is called Subject. A subject can be a noun, pronoun, noun clause or noun phrase.
is flying a kite.
is driving a car.
ate an apple.
wrote him a letter.
- The part of sentence which tells about the subject is called predicate.
is flying a kite
is driving a car
ate an apple
wrote him a letter
: make a statement
• The concert begins in two hours.
• Green is my favorite color.
• Declarative sentences make a statement.
: order / request
• Watch for oncoming traffic.
• Respond immediately.
: express strong emotion
• The river is rising!
• I can’t wait for the party!
• I don’t know what I’ll do if I don’t pass this test!
: ask a question
• Is it snowing?
• Have you had breakfast?
• Do you want Coke or Pepsi?
Types of Sentences - according to structure
A sentence's structure is determined by the number and kinds of clauses it contains.
- consists of an
, so it contains a
subject and a verb
It does NOT contain either a
or another simple sentence.
EX: The dog barked.
Compound Sentence -
consists of two or more simple sentences joined by a
followed by a
(for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) / a
EX: The dog barked, the cat yowled, and the rabbit chewed.
Complex Sentence -
consists of a combination of an
independent clause and a dependent clause.
EX: The dog that was in the street howled loudly.
Compound-Complex Sentence -
consists of a combination of a compound sentence and a complex sentence.
EX: As the dog howled, one cat sat on the fence, and the other licked its paws.
Types of Clauses:
There are two major types of clauses -
main (or independent) clause
subordinate (or dependent) clause
He is buying a shirt
which looks very nice.
The above sentence has two clauses “He is buying a shirt” and “which looks very nice”.
The clause “
He is buying a shirt
” expresses a complete thought and can alone stand as a sentence. Such a clause is called
main or independent clause.
While the clause “
which looks very nice
” does not express a complete thought and can’t stand as a sentence. It depends on another clause (main clause) to express a complete idea. Such a clause is called
subordinate or dependent clause
A compound-complex sentence consists of at least
one or more dependent clauses
He went to college
I went to a market
where I bought a book.
I like Mathematics
my bother likes Biology
because he wants to be a doctor.
I ate ice cream for dessert when dinner was over,
but my friend ate cookies.
Before you begin writing, you must figure out what the purpose of the paragraph is.
Types of Paragraphs
- It tells what the subject looks, sounds, feels, tastes, and/or smells like by using vivid imagery.
- It tells a story.
- It provides information or explains a subject. Or, it gives steps and shows how to do something.
- It proves your belief or feeling about something.
Parts of a Paragraph
A paragraph has three major structural parts:
topic sentence -
The topic sentence states the main idea of the paragraph. It not only names the topic of the paragraph, but it also limits the topic to one or two areas that can be discussed completely in the space of a single paragraph. The specific area is called the
, a precious metal, is prized for
two important characteristics.
supporting sentences -
Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence. That is, they explain the topic sentence by giving reasons, examples, facts, statistics, and quotations.
concluding sentence -
The concluding sentence signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader
with important points to remember
Useful Transition Words
To show addition
Again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second, etc.), further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, moreover, next, too
To give examples
for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate
Also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly
To summarize or conclude
All in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum
To indicate logical relationship
Accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thus
Although, and yet, at the same time, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, though
A clause that
I ate ice cream.
A clause that
When dinner was over