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Transcript of Ancient Greece
Believed the goal of education was to improve the individual.
The first Greek dramas were tragedies and were presented in a trilogy.
The most important form of architecture was the temple that was dedicated to a god or goddess.
Classical Greece was a period of intellectual and cultural growth.
Athens lost the war and the Athenian empire was destroyed. The war weakened all of the major Greek states.
Sparta feared the growing Athenian empire, leading to the outbreak the Great Peloponnesian War in 431 B.C.
Student of Socrates. He was fascinated with the question of reality.
The Age of Pericles witnessed an expansion of the empire that is considered the height of Athenian power and brilliance.
Pericles also expanded democracy to all male citizens and enabled all citizens to play a role in the government, making it a direct democracy.
"AGE of PERICLES"
Pericles became a dominant leader in Athens after the defeat of the Persians.
Classical Greek ideas about government, philosophy, and the arts created the foundation of Western society.
Philosophy, literature, and travel were discouraged. The art of war was the only ideal.
Ephors were elected annually and were in charge of education and the conduct of Spartan citizens.
How can societies of the past influence the present?
What factors lead to a civilizations rise and decline?
Early Athens was ruled by aristocrats who owned the best land.
Democracy: a government by the people, or rule by the many
The main gathering area was usually the acropolis, a fortified area at the top of a hill.
Mycenae was the first Greek state that was ruled by powerful monarchies.
Homer’s epic poems provided the foundation for classical Greek education.
Athens and Sparta were influential city states with different forms of government.
Early Greek Civilization
Sparta was a military state. All men in Sparta joined the military, and stayed in the army until they were 60.
The two most powerful city-states were Sparta and Athens.
The Hellenistic Era saw many cultural accomplishments, especially in Alexandria and Pergamum, where great libraries were built and thousands of statues were erected.
Alexander the Great spread Greek culture across Southwest Asia, into Egypt, and to India.
Alexander and the Hellenistic Era
Greeks wrote the first
analytical history, staged
philosophy, and created art
and architecture known for
balance and harmony.
Alexander the Great created
an empire that spread Greek (Hellenistic) culture throughout Southwest Asia.
ANCIENT GREECE REVIEW
The polis, or city-state, was
the center of Greek political
and economic life.
Sparta and Athens followed
very different ideals.
Pericles expanded Athenian
democracy to enable more
citizens to participate in the
ANCIENT GREECE REVIEW
Alexander’s unified kingdom did not last, and four Hellenistic kingdoms arose: Macedonia, Syria, Egypt, and Pergamum in western Asia Minor.
Alexander the Great created a new age, the Hellenistic Era, which saw the spread of Greek culture and ideas to Southwest Asia and beyond.
When he took the throne at age 20, Alexander the Great continued the plan of his deceased father, Phillip II, to conquer Persia.
In 338 B.C. Phillip II of Macedonia invaded Greece and defeated the Greek states at the Battle of Chaeronea.
Homer wrote two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, about the Trojan War.
By 750 B.C., the city-state, or polis, had become the focus of Greek life. There, people would meet for political, social, and religious activities.
The agora was an open area below the acropolis where people would assemble.
The Greek city-states had different forms of government.
Oligarchy: rule of the few
The government was an oligarchy headed by two kings who led the army.
The threat of civil war convinced aristocrats to hand over power to Solon, who ended the economic problems by canceling land debts and freeing people enslaved for debt.
In 508 B.C., Cleisthenes created a council of 500 ran the country,
while the Athenian Assembly (male citizens) gave final authority to pass laws after open debate.
The Parthenon is the greatest example of the classical Greek temple.
Three Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle established the foundations of Western philosophy.
He used a question-and-answer format to lead students to find answers for themselves, called the Socratic Method.
Taught students to live their lives by a code of ethics
Wrote his ideas of government in a work entitled The Republic
Considered by many to be the greatest philosopher of Western civilization
Interested in classifying and analyzing things based on observation and investigation
He did not seek an ideal state, but rather studied existing governments and favored constitutional government.
Alexander and his army took possession of the Persian Empire and continued moving east until he reached India.
Classical Greece refers to time period from 338 BC 500 BC.
Comedies were later developed as social critiques intended to entertain and provoke reactions.